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    TIẾN SĨ Stone Stability Under Non-uniform Flow

    Quy Ẩn Giang Hồ Quy Ẩn Giang Hồ Đang Ngoại tuyến (956 tài liệu)
    Quản lý cao cấp
  1. Gửi tài liệu
  2. Bình luận
  3. Chia sẻ
  4. Thông tin
  5. Công cụ
  6. Stone Stability Under Non-uniform Flow

    Contents
    Summary v
    Samenvatting ix
    Tom tat xiii
    1 Introduction 1
    1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
    1.2 Objectives of this study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    1.3 Research methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
    1.4 Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
    2 Literature review 7
    2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
    2.2 Turbulence and flow properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
    2.2.1 Uniform open-channel flow over a rough bed . . . . . . . . 7
    2.2.2 Non-uniform open-channel flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    2.3 Hydrodynamic forces on a single stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
    2.4 Stability parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    2.4.1 Governing variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    2.4.2 The Shields stability parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
    2.4.3 The Jongeling et al. stability parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
    2.4.4 The Hofland stability parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
    2.5 Mobility parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
    2.6 Methods for stone stability assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
    2.6.1 The stability threshold concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
    2.6.2 The stone transport concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
    2.6.3 Comparison and selection of methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
    2.7 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
    3 Experimental arrangement and data processing methods 33
    3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
    3.2 Experimental configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
    3.2.1 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
    i
    ii Contents
    3.2.2 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
    3.3 Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
    3.4 Test program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
    3.4.1 Hydraulic conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
    3.4.2 Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
    3.5 Selected time series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
    3.6 Data processing methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
    3.6.1 Velocity and turbulence data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
    3.6.2 Stone entrainment rate data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
    3.6.3 Correlation analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
    4 Flow characteristics 49
    4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
    4.2 Flow quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
    4.3 Shear velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
    4.4 Mean flow velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
    4.5 The eddy viscosity and mixing length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
    4.6 Turbulence intensity data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
    4.7 Reynolds shear stress data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
    4.8 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
    5 Stone transport formulae 67
    5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
    5.2 The proposed stability parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
    5.3 Final formulation of the proposed stability parameter . . . . . . . . 70
    5.4 Evaluation of the available stability parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
    5.4.1 The Shields stability parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
    5.4.2 The Jongeling et al. stability parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
    5.4.3 The Hofland stability parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
    5.5 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
    5.5.1 Comparison of the stability parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
    5.5.2 Sensitivity analysis of key parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
    5.5.3 Entrainment correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
    5.5.4 Data comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
    5.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
    6 Estimation of stone entrainment using numerical flow modeling 87
    6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
    6.2 Flow conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
    6.3 Numerical model set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
    6.3.1 Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
    6.3.2 Boundary condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    6.3.3 Model validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
    Contents iii
    6.3.4 Model calibration and verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
    6.4 Computation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
    6.5 Estimation of bed damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
    6.6 Conclusions and recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
    7 Conclusions and recommendations 101
    7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
    7.2 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
    7.3 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
    References 106
    A Stones 115
    A.1 Artificial stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
    A.2 Stone gradation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
    B Data 117
    B.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
    B.2 Velocity and turbulence data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
    B.3 Governing variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
    C Numerical flow modeling 129
    C.1 Turbulence modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
    C.1.1 Mean-flow equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
    C.1.2 The two-equation k-# model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
    C.2 Deft input files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
    C.2.1 Mesh description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
    C.2.2 Problem description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
    C.2.3 Typical sequence of an Deft session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
    List of symbols 141
    List of figures 145
    List of tables 148
    Acknowledgements 151
    Curriculum Vitae 153

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