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    LUẬN VĂN Internet security: Cryptographic principles, algorithms and protocols

    Ác Niệm Ác Niệm Đang Ngoại tuyến (3588 tài liệu)
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  6. Internet security: Cryptographic principles, algorithms and protocols

    Contents
    Author biography xi
    Preface xiii
    1 Internetworking and Layered Models 1
    1.1 Networking Technology 2
    1.1.1 Local Area Networks (LANs) 2
    1.1.2 Wide Area Networks (WANs) 3
    1.2 Connecting Devices 5
    1.2.1 Switches 5
    1.2.2 Repeaters 6
    1.2.3 Bridges 6
    1.2.4 Routers 7
    1.2.5 Gateways 8
    1.3 The OSI Model 8
    1.4 TCP/IP Model 12
    1.4.1 Network Access Layer 13
    1.4.2 Internet Layer 13
    1.4.3 Transport Layer 13
    1.4.4 Application Layer 13
    2 TCP/IP Suite and Internet Stack Protocols 15
    2.1 Network Layer Protocols 15
    2.1.1 Internet Protocol (IP) 15
    2.1.2 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 28
    2.1.3 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) 31
    2.1.4 Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) 32
    2.1.5 IP Version 6 (IPv6, or IPng) 33
    2.1.6 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 41
    2.1.7 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) 41
    2.2 Transport Layer Protocols 42
    2.2.1 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 42
    2.2.2 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 45
    vi CONTENTS
    2.3 World Wide Web 47
    2.3.1 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 48
    2.3.2 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) 48
    2.3.3 Common Gateway Interface (CGI) 49
    2.3.4 Java 49
    2.4 File Transfer 50
    2.4.1 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 50
    2.4.2 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) 50
    2.4.3 Network File System (NFS) 50
    2.5 Electronic Mail 51
    2.5.1 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 51
    2.5.2 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) 52
    2.5.3 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) 52
    2.5.4 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) 52
    2.6 Network Management Service 53
    2.6.1 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) 53
    2.7 Converting IP Addresses 54
    2.7.1 Domain Name System (DNS) 54
    2.8 Routing Protocols 54
    2.8.1 Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 54
    2.8.2 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 55
    2.8.3 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 55
    2.9 Remote System Programs 56
    2.9.1 TELNET 56
    2.9.2 Remote Login (Rlogin) 56
    3 Symmetric Block Ciphers 57
    3.1 Data Encryption Standard (DES) 57
    3.1.1 Description of the Algorithm 58
    3.1.2 Key Schedule 60
    3.1.3 DES Encryption 62
    3.1.4 DES Decryption 67
    3.1.5 Triple DES 71
    3.1.6 DES-CBC Cipher Algorithm with IV 73
    3.2 International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) 75
    3.2.1 Subkey Generation and Assignment 76
    3.2.2 IDEA Encryption 77
    3.2.3 IDEA Decryption 82
    3.3 RC5 Algorithm 84
    3.3.1 Description of RC5 85
    3.3.2 Key Expansion 86
    3.3.3 Encryption 91
    3.3.4 Decryption 92
    3.4 RC6 Algorithm 95
    3.4.1 Description of RC6 95
    CONTENTS vii
    3.4.2 Key Schedule 96
    3.4.3 Encryption 97
    3.4.4 Decryption 100
    3.5 AES (Rijndael) Algorithm 107
    3.5.1 Notational Conventions 107
    3.5.2 Mathematical Operations 108
    3.5.3 AES Algorithm Specification 111
    4 Hash Function, Message Digest and Message Authentication Code 123
    4.1 DMDC Algorithm 123
    4.1.1 Key Schedule 124
    4.1.2 Computation of Message Digests 128
    4.2 Advanced DMDC Algorithm 133
    4.2.1 Key Schedule 133
    4.2.2 Computation of Message Digests 136
    4.3 MD5 Message-digest Algorithm 138
    4.3.1 Append Padding Bits 138
    4.3.2 Append Length 138
    4.3.3 Initialise MD Buffer 138
    4.3.4 Define Four Auxiliary Functions (F, G, H, I) 139
    4.3.5 FF, GG, HH and II Transformations for Rounds
    1, 2, 3 and 4 139
    4.3.6 Computation of Four Rounds (64 Steps) 140
    4.4 Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) 149
    4.4.1 Message Padding 149
    4.4.2 Initialise 160-Bit Buffer 150
    4.4.3 Functions Used 150
    4.4.4 Constants Used 150
    4.4.5 Computing the Message Digest 151
    4.5 Hashed Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) 155
    5 Asymmetric Public-key Cryptosystems 161
    5.1 Diffie–Hellman Exponential Key Exchange 161
    5.2 RSA Public-key Cryptosystem 165
    5.2.1 RSA Encryption Algorithm 165
    5.2.2 RSA Signature Scheme 170
    5.3 ElGamals Public-key Cryptosystem 172
    5.3.1 ElGamal Encryption 173
    5.3.2 ElGamal Signatures 175
    5.3.3 ElGamal Authentication Scheme 177
    5.4 Schnorr’s Public-key Cryptosystem 179
    5.4.1 Schnorr’s Authentication Algorithm 179
    5.4.2 Schnorr’s Signature Algorithm 181
    5.5 Digital Signature Algorithm 184
    viii CONTENTS
    5.6 The Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC) 187
    5.6.1 Elliptic Curves 187
    5.6.2 Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem Applied to the ElGamal
    Algorithm 195
    5.6.3 Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm 196
    5.6.4 ECDSA Signature Computation 198
    6 Public-key Infrastructure 201
    6.1 Internet Publications for Standards 202
    6.2 Digital Signing Techniques 203
    6.3 Functional Roles of PKI Entities 210
    6.3.1 Policy Approval Authority 210
    6.3.2 Policy Certification Authority 212
    6.3.3 Certification Authority 213
    6.3.4 Organisational Registration Authority 214
    6.4 Key Elements for PKI Operations 215
    6.4.1 Hierarchical Tree Structures 216
    6.4.2 Policy-making Authority 217
    6.4.3 Cross-certification 218
    6.4.4 X.500 Distinguished Naming 221
    6.4.5 Secure Key Generation and Distribution 222
    6.5 X.509 Certificate Formats 222
    6.5.1 X.509 v1 Certificate Format 223
    6.5.2 X.509 v2 Certificate Format 225
    6.5.3 X.509 v3 Certificate Format 226
    6.6 Certificate Revocation List 233
    6.6.1 CRL Fields 234
    6.6.2 CRL Extensions 235
    6.6.3 CRL Entry Extensions 237
    6.7 Certification Path Validation 238
    6.7.1 Basic Path Validation 239
    6.7.2 Extending Path Validation 240
    7 Network Layer Security 243
    7.1 IPsec Protocol 243
    7.1.1 IPsec Protocol Documents 244
    7.1.2 Security Associations (SAs) 246
    7.1.3 Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) 248
    7.2 IP Authentication Header 250
    7.2.1 AH Format 251
    7.2.2 AH Location 253
    7.3 IP ESP 253
    7.3.1 ESP Packet Format 254
    7.3.2 ESP Header Location 256
    7.3.3 Encryption and Authentication Algorithms 258
    TEAMFLY
    Team-Fly®
    CONTENTS ix
    7.4 Key Management Protocol for IPsec 260
    7.4.1 OAKLEY Key Determination Protocol 260
    7.4.2 ISAKMP 261
    8 Transport Layer Security: SSLv3 and TLSv1 277
    8.1 SSL Protocol 277
    8.1.1 Session and Connection States 278
    8.1.2 SSL Record Protocol 279
    8.1.3 SSL Change Cipher Spec Protocol 282
    8.1.4 SSL Alert Protocol 283
    8.1.5 SSL Handshake Protocol 284
    8.2 Cryptographic Computations 290
    8.2.1 Computing the Master Secret 290
    8.2.2 Converting the Master Secret into Cryptographic
    Parameters 291
    8.3 TLS Protocol 293
    8.3.1 HMAC Algorithm 293
    8.3.2 Pseudo-random Function 296
    8.3.3 Error Alerts 300
    8.3.4 Certificate Verify Message 302
    8.3.5 Finished Message 302
    8.3.6 Cryptographic Computations (For TLS) 302
    9 Electronic Mail Security: PGP, S/MIME 305
    9.1 PGP 305
    9.1.1 Confidentiality via Encryption 306
    9.1.2 Authentication via Digital Signature 307
    9.1.3 Compression 308
    9.1.4 Radix-64 Conversion 309
    9.1.5 Packet Headers 313
    9.1.6 PGP Packet Structure 315
    9.1.7 Key Material Packet 319
    9.1.8 Algorithms for PGP 5.x 323
    9.2 S/MIME 324
    9.2.1 MIME 325
    9.2.2 S/MIME 331
    9.2.3 Enhanced Security Services for S/MIME 335
    10 Internet Firewalls for Trusted Systems 339
    10.1 Role of Firewalls 339
    10.2 Firewall-Related Terminology 340
    10.2.1 Bastion Host 341
    10.2.2 Proxy Server 341
    10.2.3 SOCKS 342
    10.2.4 Choke Point 343
    x CONTENTS
    10.2.5 De-militarised Zone (DMZ) 343
    10.2.6 Logging and Alarms 343
    10.2.7 VPN 344
    10.3 Types of Firewalls 344
    10.3.1 Packet Filters 344
    10.3.2 Circuit-level Gateways 349
    10.3.3 Application-level Gateways 349
    10.4 Firewall Designs 350
    10.4.1 Screened Host Firewall (Single-homed Bastion Host) 351
    10.4.2 Screened Host Firewall (Dual-homed Bastion Host) 351
    10.4.3 Screened Subnet Firewall 352
    11 SET for E-commerce Transactions 355
    11.1 Business Requirements for SET 355
    11.2 SET System Participants 357
    11.3 Cryptographic Operation Principles 358
    11.4 Dual Signature and Signature Verification 359
    11.5 Authentication and Message Integrity 363
    11.6 Payment Processing 366
    11.6.1 Cardholder Registration 366
    11.6.2 Merchant Registration 371
    11.6.3 Purchase Request 373
    11.6.4 Payment Authorisation 374
    11.6.5 Payment Capture 376
    Acronyms 379
    Bibliography 383
    Index

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