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    TIẾN SĨ Causes and Effects of Foreign Direct Investment Basis for Policy Redirection in Thanh Hoa province i

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  6. Causes and Effects of Foreign Direct Investment Basis for Policy Redirection in Thanh Hoa province i

    Luận án tiến sĩ năm 2013
    Đề tài: Causes and Effects of Foreign Direct Investment: Basis for Policy Redirection in Thanh Hoa province in Vietnam
    Nguyên nhân và ảnh hưởng của đầu tư trực tiếp nước ngoài: Cơ sở cho việc điều chỉnh chính sách tại tỉnh Thanh Hóa, Việt Nam
    Luận án bằng tiếng Anh

    ABSTRACT .iii
    1.1 Background 1
    1.2 Problem Statement 3
    1.3 Research Objectives 5
    1.4 Study Object and Scope 6
    1.5 Research Questions . 7
    1.6 Significance of the Study 8
    1.7 Research Definitions . 9
    1.8 Organization of this study . 14
    2.1. Theoretical overview: FDI . 15
    2.1.1 Definitionsof FDI 15
    2.1.2 Attract FDI 17
    2.1.3 Forms of FDI . 18
    2.1.4 Effects of FDI 21
    2.1.5 Summary of some theories of attraction of FDI 22
    2.2 FDI and Motivation 28
    2.3 Factors Influencing Location of FDI . 35
    2.3.1 Political stability and policy mechanisms factors 35
    2.3.2 Socio-cultural environment factors . 35
    2.3.3 Financial factors . 36
    2.3.4 Economy and market factors 36
    2.3.5 Resource factors . 37
    2.3.6 Infrastructure factors 38
    2.4 The determinants of the FDI in Vietnamreview of literature . 40
    2.5 Overview of Thanh Hoa province . 48
    2.5.1 Overview of Thanh Hoa’s social -economy . 48
    2.5.2 The mechanisms and policies for attracting FDI in Thanh Hoa province 49
    3.1. Theoretical framework and hypothesis development 53
    3.2. The data collection and data analytical framework . 55
    3.3. Sample sizeand Population determination . 60
    3.3.1 Population determination . 60
    3.3.2 Sample size determination . 61
    3.3.3 Sampling Method . 62
    3.4. Questionnaire Design . 62
    3.5. Response Rate . 63
    4.1 The trends ofFDI inflows in Thanh Hoa Province in the period from 2001 to 2012 64
    4.2. Data analysis about the factors affecting the attraction of foreign direct
    Investment in Thanh Hoa Province. 67
    4.2.1 The importance of various factors in attracting FDI ìnlows in Thanh Hoa
    province . 70 Political/governmental/legal factors (F1) 70 Social and cultural factors (F2) . 72
    viii Financial factors (F.3 ) 73 Economic and marketing factors (F4) . 74 Availability of resources factors (F5) . 75 . Infrastructure factors (F6) 76
    4.2.2 Results of the Analysis . 77
    4.3 Dataanalysis about the effects of FDI in the economic growth of Thanh Hoa
    Province . 78
    4.3.1 Contributions to development and movement of economic structure 79
    4.3.2 Contributions in mobilizing invested capital for development 80
    4.3.3 Employment change . 81
    4.3.4 Contribution of FDI sector in province revenue 82
    4.3.5 FDI contribution to export turnover 83
    4.4Analysis of factors affecting the process of FDI investment in Thanh Hoa
    province . 84
    4.2.1Analysis of research results 84
    4.2.2 Correlations coefficient 89
    5.1 Summary 91
    5.2 Conclusion 93
    5.3. Policy implications 96
    5.4. Limitations and further research . 99
    Appendix -A 106
    Appendix -B 107
    Appendix –C . 118
    Appendix –D . 137

    This research was undertaken with the primary objectives of: (1) To describe
    the trends in FDI in Thanh Hoa Province in the period from 2001 to 2012. (2) To
    determine the factors affecting attraction of FDI in Thanh Hoa Province. (3) To
    analyze the effects of FDI in the economic growth of Thanh Hoa Province. (4) To
    formulate policy implication to enhance economic growth of Thanh Hoa Province in
    Vietnam. To organize the research questionnaire, the conceptual framework was
    adopted from the Eclectic Paradigm or the “OLI” paradigm developed by Dunning
    1993 and according to factors which are influencing to choice of a host market of
    Gilomre, O’s Donnel, Carson and Cummins (2003). The paper was studied six major
    factors such as Political / Government / Legal Factors, Social and Cultural Factors,
    Economic and Market Factors, Financial Factors, Availability of resourcesfactors and
    Infrastructure Factors which are highly affecting for the inflow of FDI. The variables
    under each of the above factors have been included in the questionnaire.
    The research methodology of the study which explained conceptual
    frame work, research design, population and sample size, questionnaire design,
    data collection and data analysis methods. The research was conducted in two phases.
    The first phase involved secondary collection, desk tally by review, literatures,
    research, journals, publications, books, official reports from government officials.
    The second phase was the primary date collection by doing survey using structured
    questionnaires(either through e-mailing, telephone and direct face to face interview).
    The populationof this research was forty one (41) FDI entrepreneurs and 100 officers.
    To ob tain the sample size it was used the Slovin formalation and the sample size was
    determined as 37 and 80 respondents respectively.
    Data processing methods, survey results are coded, data entry are described by
    statistical tool. The combinations of descr iptive and as well as statistical
    tools have been used to analyze the findings of the study. The data were processed
    by usingSPSS. All primary data collected through the questionnaires were analyzed
    by frequency tab les and correlation analysis. The techniques like simple tabulations
    have been used for the frequency tables, determination of r a n k s u m , mean, P
    Value, Adj. Variance and standard deviations. C orrelation analysis was used to
    study the linear correlation among the various factors affecting FDI and the level
    of significance.
    This study focuses on the four main issues: Firstly , about the trends in FDI in
    Thanh HoaProvince, FDI in Thanh Hoa increased rapidly in the period from 2001 –
    2012. Secondly, about the factors affectthe attraction of foreign direct investment in
    Thanh Hoa Province. We found that there are two aspects of the Thanh Hoa economic
    environments in which international business partners are particularly interested: the
    economic and marketingand infrastructure factors. However, the social and cultural
    factor seemed not be a significant factor. Most investors put the social and cultural
    factor in the least important group. Thirdly, analyze the effects of FDI in the
    economic growth of Thanh Hoa Province. FDI has a positive impact on the
    industrialization and modernization in Thanh Hoa province in recent years. However,
    the current state of foreign direct investment in Thanh Hoa still exist some limited
    such as: Total investment project is small, they are not commensurate with the
    potential and strengths of provincial; Differences between the registered capital and
    performance capital is large, performance capital growth is not high etc. Finally ,
    evaluate the favorable level of factors affecting the investment process of FDI
    enterprises in Thanh Hoa province.The result of the study shows that there are some
    factors that have been evaluated as much more favorable, while other factors are
    considered more difficult.
    Based on the findings of this research, recommendations were made to the
    relevant in Thanh Hoa government in particular and as well as to the in the center
    government for the formulation of appropriate investment incentive policies to attract
    more foreign direct investment opportunities into Thanh Hoa province in the future
    in-line with the FDI entrepreneur’s perception.

    1.1 Background
    In globalintegration economy, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has been very
    much needed toboost the growth of a country’s economy especially the developing
    countries. It is clai med that FDI can create emplo y ment, increasing technologica l
    development in the host country and improving the economic condition o f the
    country in general.
    Viet nam implemented its economic reform Doi Moi in the mid -1980s. The
    market-based economic policies and legal frameworks have contributed to open
    up the country, trade barriers have been removed and FDI has been now a
    fundamental part of the economy.
    Among various forms of international business, FDI is highly regarded as
    the most effect ive wa y by which transition ec onomies become integrated to the
    glob al economy . FDI involves the transfers ofmultiple resources to a host country,
    especially transfers of knowledge, capital, management skills, marketing knowhow and the latest p roduction technology . FDI is expected to provide urgent ly
    needed capital for country in various fields with limited access to in ternation al
    capital markets a nd to generate cash revenues through privatizat i on for limited
    budgets. Furthermore, the entries of foreign companies are projected to foster
    cha nges in the economic sy stem, to create competi tion and to promote the
    development of many sectors, especially, private sector. Foreign investors also
    facilitate exports to Western and other international markets through the ir
    knowledge and experi e nce of the releva nt markets as well as access to
    distribution networks (Girma et al ., 2005; Meyer, 1998; Nguy en and Xing,
    2006). Hence, FDI interacts with many aspects of the transition process th rough its
    direct impact on macroeconomics namely, the bal a nce of payments and
    employment, th rough the transfer of knowledge and th rough the role of investo rs as
    new owners of formerly state-owned enterprises (Meyer, 1998). However, the
    transit ion vice versa influences FDI inflows. For instance, FDI is gravitated to
    countries with furthest progress in economic and institutional reforms to
    minimize transaction costs of doing busin ess (Baniak et al., 2002; Mey er, 2001).
    As other transition economies, in the period from the late 1970s to 1990,
    Vietnam wasintegrated in the trading system of the Soviet Union and its a llies with
    few other linkages.During 1980s, Vietn am had experienced severe shortages of food
    and basic consumer goods, th ree-digit inflation,a high budget defi cit, chronic trade
    imbalances and deteri orating living sta ndards. The sluggish economy forced the
    Vietnamese government to initiate an overall economic reform from a planned
    economy to a market one in 1986. The most important tasks of the reform
    program w e r e to encourage development of private sector and to reduce the
    dependence of the overall economy on inefficie nt state-owned enterprises. In this
    process, FDI had pl ay ed a crucial rol e in creating an “imported” private sector and
    strengthening the competitiveness of the economy.
    The first Law on Fo reign Investment issued in 1987 b y the Vietnamese
    government was considered as one of the first concrete steps to wards FDI
    encouragement and economic renovation. This law was revised several ti mes in
    1992, 1996, 2000, and most recently replaced by a new law on investment
    integrating both domestic and foreign investment (Unifi ed Investment Law 2006).
    These c hanges and amendments aimed to remove obstacles against the
    operation of foreign investors and to imp rove the environmental investment in
    Vietnam, creating a fair business environment for both domesti c and foreign
    companies. Usually, these cha nges are providing more tax incentives, promote
    transfer of technology and simplify investment licensing procedures.
    Besides favorable and open policies toward foreign investments, Vietna m
    also attracted foreign investors in another ways such as a potencial market for
    consuming and low costs of production factors. In particular, Vietnam is a
    profitable market with population of some 90 million so the demand of consumer
    goodsis huge. Moreover, factor-cost advantages arising from relatively low costs
    of raw materials a nd l ow labor costs create the attractiveness of Viet na m
    compared to neighboring countries, especially in garment, textile, and sea food
    manufacturing indu stries (Mirza & Giroud, 2004).However, foreign companies in
    Vietnam still ha ve to pay high transaction costs associated with searching,
    negotiating and contracting with domestic partners arising from an incompl ete,
    inconsiste nt and continuously changing institutional framework. Acording to the
    Provincial Competitiveness Index Reportfrom 2006 to 2012, many ma nagers in
    Vietnam have not fully satisfied with the resource of information on suppliers,
    buy ers, price trends andchanges in polici e s and regulations, and the y have to use
    personal relationships with local authorities to get important information.
    1.2 Problem Statement
    According to the decentralization polic y started in the FDI law
    amendment in 1996, each provin ce was decentralized with more power and
    autonomy in dealing with foreign investments such a s in granting investment
    licenses, leasing land, providing export and import licenses a nd recruiting labor.
    This poli c y , on the one hand, allows provincial authorities to develop in an
    innovative ways that attract more foreign investors, and also leads to variations
    in the implementation of the central laws and regulations among provinces. Foreign
    investors may experience a lot of red tapes namely, corruption or delays in
    administrative progress if lo cal authorities possess conservative inh erited norms
    and cognitions. In this context, foreign investo rs have consid ered many factors
    when investing in Vietnam such a s modes of entry and lo cation choi ces for their
    operations so that th e y can make use of advantages and mini mize disad va ntages.
    In order to attract investors to Thanh Hoa and give the most favorable
    conditions to them, the province has offered many investment priority policies as well
    as improves administrative procedures. Over the past revised, the province’s
    investment environment has been significantly improved. With a view to: no
    restrictions on size, industry, and geographic areas, based on the Investment Law and
    Enterprise Law, Thanh Hoa is continuing to review and to improve the system of
    mechanisms and policies towards incentives and making it more convenient for
    investors. These mechanisms and policies of Thanh Hoa focus on improve and
    simplify administrative procedures, issue the open and attractive mechanisms and
    policies, call for investment, create innovative in building essential socio-economic
    infrastructure, promote the advantages of human resources, improve the quality of
    human resources in order to meet business’s demands. In addition, resolution No
    02/NQ-TU dated 27/6/2011 regarding improvement for investment environment in
    province in the stage 2011 –2015 focusedon implementing site clearance work in
    order to meet investors’ requirements, support business development, transparency of
    information for business, support business development, transparency of information
    for business. With the above policy should take until 2012in Thanh Hoa province has
    41 investment projects involving foreign direct operation with a total registered
    capital of USD 6,952 million.
    These results are encouraging, but compared to the potential and advantages of
    Thanh Hoa province are still limited . The number and sizes of investment projects in
    Thanh Hoa are low. Thanh Hoa is notone of the top provinces classified based on
    provincial competitiveness index. We have to describe the trends in FDI in Thanh
    Hoa Provinceand identifiedof factors affecting the attraction of foreign investment in
    Thanh Hoa. After that wecananalysis of theimpact of each factor to attract foreign
    investment is essential for the government in offering policies to attract investment
    capitaland analyze the effects of FDI in the economic growth of Thanh Hoa Province.
    Therefore, we can formulate policy implication to enhance economic growth of Thanh
    Hoa Province in Vietnam.
    This thesis focuses on determinant of “Causes and Effects of Foreign Direct
    Investment: Basis for Policy Redirection in Thanh Hoa province in Vietnam”.
    The research was conducted in two phases. The first phase involves secondary
    collection and desk review such as reviewing of relevant literatures, journals,
    publications, books and reports. The second phase is the collection of primary data via
    structured questionnaire and data analysis.
    1.3 Research Objectives
    The main objective of this research is to determinants Foreign Direct
    investment in Thanh Hoa province. Thus it hopes to achieve the following objectives:
    1. To describe the trends in FDI in Thanh Hoa Province in the period from
    2001 to 2012.
    2. To determine the factors affecting attraction of FDI in Thanh Hoa Province
    in terms of the following factors:
     Political and legal
     Social and culture

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