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    TIẾN SĨ Competitiveness of vietnamese labor export in north-east asia market A comparison across asean count

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  6. Competitiveness of vietnamese labor export in north-east asia market A comparison across asean count

    Luận án tiến sĩ năm 2013
    Năng lực cạnh tranh của lao động xuất khẩu Việt Nam trong thị trường Đông Bắc Á: So sánh giữa các nước ASEAN

    Luận án bằng Tiếng Anh

    DEDICATION . iii
    LIST OF TABLES . viii
    Background of the Study .1
    Statement of the Problem 5
    Objective of the Study 7
    Hypothesis of the Study 8
    Significance of the Study 8
    Scope and Limitation of the Study 9
    Definition of Terms .10
    Related Literature 14
    Related Studies 32
    Conceptual Framework .43
    Research Design 45
    Time and Place of Study .46
    Sampling .46
    Respondents of the Study 47
    Data collection 48
    Research Instruments 48
    Methods of Analysis .50
    Summary of Findings .100
    Conclusions .103
    Recommendations .104
    APPENDIX .121

    In recent years, the world has witnessed the economic recovery of a number of
    countries affected by financial crisis in the period 2008 to 2009. International
    economy is in ongoing strong growth, but unemployment all over the world puts
    pressure on labor and jobs. Each year, Vietnam economy have more than 1 million
    new labors and labor status is always excessive as we mention before. Exporting labor
    is essential way to solve this issue and earning foreign currency for economy.
    Competition happen in everywhere and every sectors, including labor export. Hence,
    determining competitiveness of Vietnamese labor is a key point to develop.
    With this point of view, the dissertation proposes a system of a set of
    criteria to evaluate the competitiveness of labor export. Base on these indicators,
    the dissertation evaluated competitiveness of labor export under two points of
    view: Direct assessment of international employers and indirect evaluation by
    comparing capacity of labor export and qualifications of international employers.
    In addition, the dissertation compared the perceived competitiveness of labor
    export across countries and markets.
    Further, the dissertation uses multivariate regression equation to evaluate
    fully factors affecting to competitiveness of export labors in North-East Asia
    market. Base on these analyses, the dissertation proposes value recommendations
    to improve competitiveness of Vietnamese labor export. They are highly value
    information for government in building plans and strategies of labor export.

    Chapter 1
    Background of the Study
    In the last some years, the world has witnessed the economic recovery of a
    number of countries affected by financial crisis in the period 2008 to 2009.
    International economy is in ongoing strong growth. However, the unemployment all
    over the world puts pressure on labor and jobs. Obtaining the moving regular of
    international labor market, Vietnam already offered specific policies and resolutions
    to expand some new labor markets. In particular, the Communist Party of Vietnam
    and its Government defined that labor and specialist export is an important external
    economic sector and is also a part of handling employment policy. This policy is put
    in the annual target by the Congress.
    Expanding the labor export market is a suitable economic development
    direction with an open integration path. This expansion takes part in handling jobs for
    the laborers throughout the nation. Labor exportation contributes to eliminate famine
    and reduce poverty. The remittance from about a half million employees, including
    technicians and unskilled employees who live in 40 countries and regions, contributes
    a lot to the national budget (approximately 1.6 billion dollars per year). Recently,
    labor exportation strongly develops and positively participates in handling
    employment policy, increasing income, creating stabilization and developing the
    country. However, the requirements for labor exportation is stricter and stricter
    regarding labor qualification, workmanship, work regulations and foreign language,
    especially for works in workshop, factory. Nowadays, Vietnamese laborers who work
    overseas basically match foreign demands but their skills and qualifications are still so
    limited that this makes it hard to attack any developed economy’s labor market.
    Hence, what we must do is to make Vietnamese labor strong and to affirm our
    trademark in international market. It requires the real action of the government, the
    enterprises, the managers, and the employees interested in labor exportation.
    There are many factors, which influence the labor export. Firstly, the
    economic crisis dramatically influenced the context in which a growing number of
    international migrants had begun to spread from poorer to more industrialized
    countries. Secondly, the universalization also affects labor export in a positive way.
    Thirdly, competitiveness is one main influence on labor export. In addition, global
    labor market is also very important factor.
    The labor market is a generalized concept denoting the interaction between the
    supply (number of persons available for work) and the demand (number of jobs
    available) and the wage rate. The high-income countries are always the potential
    destinations for migrant workers.
    Labor export in recent years has been one effective solution to generating
    employment, helping to increase workers' income and earning foreign currency for the
    country. According to the Department of Overseas Labor (DOLAB) (2011) which is
    under the direct management of the Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs
    (MOLISA), since 2001 more than 295,000 Vietnamese have gone to work abroad,
    bringing the total number of Vietnamese workers in foreign countries to 400,000. In
    2005, the country sent nearly 70,600 workers abroad, a 5 percent year on year
    increase. The overseas workers have remitted about 1.6 billion USD to the country.
    The labor export sector is one of Vietnam's 1 billion USD export value earners.
    Labor export has also helped generate jobs in related services, such as job and
    foreign language training, thus reducing the pressure of the matter of employment for
    workers in the country. Labor export businesses have annually contributed to the State
    budget tens of billions of VND from their profits and management fees.
    The number of Vietnamese workers in traditional markets has remarkably
    increased, including more than 30,000 workers in the Republic of Korea, 10,000
    workers in Malaysia, 90,000 workers in Taiwan, and 20,000 workers in Japan.
    Vietnamese workers have been also sent to Canada, United States of
    America, Australia, Italy and some Middle Eastern countries. These new markets are
    attractive for their high wages and proper worker protection laws (DOLAB, 2011).
    Vietnam has licensed more than 100 businesses for labor exports, including
    40 businesses specializing in labor supply. Many businesses of ministries and
    localities have sent large numbers of workers abroad and have taken a high level of
    responsibility for their workers, particularly in reducing risks (DOLAB, 2011).
    According to MOLISA (2011), in the coming years, Vietnam has a chance to
    expand markets for labor exports as the world labor market is in great need of foreign
    workers, for a variety of work in construction, manufacturing, electronics assembly,
    garment and textile, services, hospitality, health care, domestic labor, sea transport,
    fishing, seafood processing, forestry and agriculture, which are suitable to Vietnamese
    Vietnam now has more than 44 million people of working age, with about 1.2
    million more people per year reaching working age, a major resource of work force
    supply for the domestic and foreign labor markets. According to foreign employers,
    Vietnamese workers are industrious, clever and creative. The rate of exported workers
    given job training has increased from 35 percent in 2003 to nearly 50 percent in 2005
    (DOLAB, 2011).

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