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    TIẾN SĨ Assessment of capability, knowledge and skill of vocational school graduates A basis for enhanced in

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  6. Assessment of capability, knowledge and skill of vocational school graduates A basis for enhanced in

    Luận án tiến sĩ năm 2013
    Đề tài: Assessment of capability, knowledge and skill of vocational school graduates: A basis for enhanced industry-academe cooperation
    Đánh giá năng lực, kiến thức và kỹ năng sinh viên tốt nghiệp các trường nghề: Cơ sở phát triển hợp tác đào tạo giữa trường nghề và doanh nghiệp
    Luận án được trình bày bằng tiếng Anh


    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . i
    DEED OF DECLARATION ii
    TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
    ABSTRACT . v
    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vii
    LIST OF TABLES viii
    LIST OF FIGURES x
    RATING SHEET xi
    CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1
    1.1. Background . 1
    1.2. Problem Statement 2
    1.3. Reseach Objectives 3
    1.4. Research Questions . 3
    1.5. Hypotheses 4
    1.6. Scope and Limitation of the Study . 5
    1.7. Reseach Definitions . 6
    1.8. Significance of the Study . 6
    1.9. Structure of the Study 7
    1.10. Conclusion 8
    CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES . 9
    2.1. International related research . 9
    2.2. National related research . 10
    2.3. Theoretical and conceptual framework 11
    2.4. Analysing framework 22
    CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY . 24
    3.1. Research design . 24
    3.2. Determination of sample 25
    3.3. Research instrument 29
    3.4. Data gathering procedure . 34
    3.5. Data processing method . 34
    3.6. Evaluation the reliability of scales . 42
    3.7. Statistical treatment . 43
    CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA . 46
    4.1. Characteristics of the survey sample 46
    4.2. Enterprises’ assessment of the knowledge, skills and capabilities to work of graduates
    from vocational schools 48
    4.3. Assessment of conditions ensuring the quality of vocational training in vocationa l schools 56
    iv
    4.4. Forms of cooperating activities currently organized at vocational schools 60
    4.5. Benefits of cooperation according to the assessment of enterprises and vocational schools 63
    4.6. The influence of cooperating programs on the knowledge and skills of vocational school students . 65
    4.7. Cooperating programs that enterprises expect/desire to participate . 67
    4.8. Factors hindering cooperation 69
    4.9. Accreditation of the relationship between the variables/factors 70
    4. 10. Construction of regressional function to analyse the relationship between factors . 73
    CHAPTER V: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS75
    5.1. Findings of study . 75
    5.2. Accreditation of the hypotheses . 77
    5.3. The relationship between factors and the development of school -enterprise
    cooperating programs . 78
    5.4. Proposals for the development of programs collaboration school - industry . 78
    5.5. Conclusion 81
    REFERENCES . 82


    ABSTRACT
    In Vietnam, t he quality of vocational training has not yet met the actual requirement s
    of the enterprises. One of the causes of this situation goes to the lack of efficient and close
    cooperation between vocational schools and enterprises.
    With the use of interview, survey and collection of expert opinions, the author has
    conducted a study on a sample of 233 enterprises for their comments on the knowledge and
    skills of graduates (majoring either in Mechanics or Electrics/ Electronics). A sample of some
    vocational schools has also been on research about the conditions to ensure the quality of
    vocational training. The author has also studied some current school-industry cooperation
    programs and their impact on the knowledge and skills of vocational school graduates. On
    completion of the dissertation, the author has collected and analysed the opinions from both
    sides, schools and businesses, about the benefits of cooperation, the factors hindering the
    development of cooperation and the desire/willingness of the enterprises to cooperate with
    schools. From the research and analysis of the opinions of both sides, the author has also
    proposed some solutions to the development of cooperating programs in order to improve the
    quality of vocational training (in terms of the knowledge and skills of graduates).
    Followings are new findings of the dissertation through research:
    1. The capability, knowledge and skills of graduates from vocational schools do not meet
    the requirements of the job. Businesses deliver the lowest assessment for such skills as
    organizing in production, communicating, team-working and problem-solving. This situation
    also applies for graduates’ knowledge and skills in statistics, English, CNC, PIC, PLC
    programming, electric/electronic circuit designing and modern equipment operating.
    2. Current conditions at schools affecting capability , knowledge and skills of graduates
    include factors that insure quality of vocational training. Among these factors, the shortage of
    updated training content and teachers visiting business environment as well as the lack in
    quality and quantity of technology equipment are most concerned.
    3. There are three (03) groups of cooperating program between vocational schools and
    businesses, namely information exchange, resources supply and exchange, and vocational
    training plan design. Arrangement of internship for students at businesses is the most popular
    and most regular industry -academy cooperating activity. Other activities are also done to
    encourage cooperation yet not often.
    vi
    4. Businesses and vocational schools share similar opinions about the benefits of
    cooperation in training. Cooperation has a positive impact on knowledge and skills of
    vocational students. Enterprises are willing to participate in cooperating programs with
    vocational schools.
    5. Factors hindering industry-academy cooperation in vocational training include a weak
    mechanism to encourage/force the cooperation, the lack of information about partners and the
    fact that one party does not assure the interests of the partner.
    6. On the basis of the research findings, dissertation proposes some solutions to enhance
    industry -academy cooperation and to improve the capability, knowledge and skills of
    vocational students.


    CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
    1.1. Background
    “Rapid development of human resources, especially high-quality human resources is
    the breakthrough of the country for 2011-2020” (Strategy of Vietnam socio-economic
    development from 2011 to 2020). “Human resources are the foundation and the most
    important advantage to develop the country in a sustainable way” (Strategy of Vietnam
    human resources development for 2011-2020).
    “Education and training is the determinant of human resources’ quality”. But “the
    quality of education is low in comparison with requirement of the country ’s development in
    the new period ; professional capacity of graduates has not met job requirement” (Strategy
    for development of education and training for 2011-2020).
    “Attracting businesses to participate heavily in human resources development”,
    “Building regulations, mechanisms and policies to promote cohesion between training
    institution and businesses, expanding forms of training according to the orders of the business
    and attracting enterprises to participate more in human resources training, as well as
    institutionalizing the responsibility of businesses in human resources development” (Strategy
    of Vietnam human resources development for 2011-2020).
    “The current quality of training institutions has not really met the need of the labor
    market. There are many factors affecting training quality of schools. A major cause is the
    relationship between schools and businesses in the area of education has not been concerned
    in a highly effective way. The participation of enterprises in the training process is very
    limited” (MOIT, 2011).
    Although the recent development of the educational scale at vocational training levels
    better meets people’s learning needs, its quality does not satisfy the national socio-economic
    development requirements and is lower than that of many other countries in the region and
    over the world. Vocational training quality is still poor compared with the company demand
    in the new age (Thang & Huy, 2012). Vocational education does not receive appropriate
    attention. Specialization in the vocational training is not well implemented. For instance, the
    higher education size as well as the number of colleges and universities has developed rapidly
    while their human resources and physical facilities remain too limited to ensure high quality,
    making it impossible to meet social demand.
    2
    Therefore, a breakthrough in vocational education is needed to increase trained labor
    force. The vocational education system will be restructured and associated with real needs and
    practical labour use. It helps create local jobs, contributes to economic structure transfer, and
    labour restructuring in rural areas, thus contributing to poverty reduction. In other words,
    vocational training is closely connected to production and business labour use.
    Currently, t here are 32 vocational schools under MOIT. Almost all of them supply
    many kinds of courses at many levels, from certificate to university degree. In 2012, with the
    total of 450,000 students, the number of newly -admitted students are 210,000, graduates are
    150,000 (MOIT, 2012). However, training quality is very limited and can hardly enable
    trainees to handle new technology, national development demand and enterprises. According
    to survey results of JICA project in Vietnam with the enterprises’ feedbacks/comments on the
    graduates from some vocational schools under MOIT on such criteria as knowledge, technical
    skills, attitudes at work, it is recognized that there are many criteria that have not fully
    satisfied the expectations of enterprises (under 3 points – Using 5-point Likert’s Scale). One
    of the main reasons is that vocational schools and enterprises are not very well cooperated
    with each other. In fact, enterprises are seldom allowed to take part in some stages of
    vocational training such as indentifying the right jobs for training, designing curriculum,
    coordinating internship for trainees, etc.
    In this context, I have selected the topic: “Assessment of capability, knowledge and
    skill of vocational school graduates: A basis for enhanced industry-academe
    cooperation” as thesis topic for DBA course. As a vice rector of a professional university –
    Hanoi University of Industry, the author has recognized that research on the topic is realistic.
    The research results will not only help the university to overcome the above problem but also
    provide a basis for solutions for the improvements of vocational training quality in Vietnam
    To collect data for this study, I have implemented a survey with sample of vocational training
    colleges under Vietnam Ministry of Industry and Trade and an other ministry . In addition, I
    have also carried out another survey with sample of enterprises in order to get their feedbacks
    on quality of graduates from vocational training schools.
    1.2. Problem Statement
    The current quality of graduates from vocational schools under MOIT has not really
    met the needs of the labor market. One of the major factors affecting the quality of graduates
    lies in an uneffective cooperation between schools and businesses and a limited participation
    of enterprises in the training process.
    3
    The objective of this research is to improve school – enterprise program collaboration
    in enhancing skills and knowledge of vocational school graduates.
    1.3. Reseach Objectives
    This study explores the phenomena of collaboration between enterprises and
    vocational training schools in the context of economic and educational reforms in Vietnam. I
    analyse the phenomena of cooperation between enterprises and vocational training schools
    over recent years in Vietnam, particularly the issues and problems of training in vocational
    schools, and supplying quality human resourses for production in enterprises. I also propose
    some solutions to deal with problems happening in vocational schools in general and Hanoi
    University of Industry in specific. The result of this study provides more evidence for
    cooperation between enterprises and vocational training schools, and contributes to the
    growing literature in education, labor economics and human resources management by using
    the specific Vietnamese case. The study tries to fill the gap of research on cooperation
    between enterprises and vocational training schools in Vietnam.
    With these issues in mind, I conducted this research with four overall objectives: (1) to
    advance understanding of the cooperation between enterprises and vocational training schools
    and confirm the fact that th e cooperation is very important for vocational schools in general
    and Hanoi University of Industry in specific; (2) to assess knowledge and skills of graduates
    from vocational schools and the impact of school-enterprise cooperation on knowledge and
    skills of graduates; (3) to indentify the major factors for developing program collaboration
    between enterprises and vocational training schools in order to improve vocational training
    quality; and (4) to propose some solutions for improving collaboration between enterprises
    and vocational training schools in the future. Moreover, the research results will contribute to
    the literature on education, labor economics and human resources management.
    1.4. Research Questions
    With the above objectives, the following questions are addressed to meet the
    objectives of this dissertation:
    Q1. What are the problems encountered by the enterprises about the skills and
    knowledge of vocational school graduates in terms of (1) Desired skills for their position, (2)
    Knowledge required for their position, (3) Work attitude ?


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    9. General Department of Vocational Training (2004), The status of combining vocational
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    strategy of developing education to policy of developing human resources .
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    improve the quality of vocational training in Vietnam in this period
    12. Collins, N, 2005. Economic reform and unemployment in Vietnam. In J. Benson & Y.
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