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    TIẾN SĨ Comparative Advantage of Vietnam s Textile and Clothing Industry

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  6. Comparative Advantage of Vietnam s Textile and Clothing Industry

    Luận án tiến sĩ năm 2013
    Đề tài: Comparative Advantage of Vietnam’s Textile and Clothing Industry
    Lợi thế so sánh của ngành dệt may Việt Nam
    Luận án được trình bày bằng tiếng Anh


    LIST OF CONTENTS
    Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION . 1
    1.1. Problem Statement 1
    1.2. Objectives . 3
    1.2.1. General Objective . 3
    1.2.2. Specific Objectives . 4
    1.3. Dissertation structure 4
    Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 5
    2.1. Theoretical Foundation . 5
    2.1.1. Definition of comparative advantage . 5
    2.1.2. Theories of comparative advantage 7
    2.1.2.1. Ricardian model 7
    2.1.2.2. Heckscher – Ohlin model (H-O) . 10
    2.1.3. Factors affecting comparative advantage . 14
    2.1.3.1. Technological Superiority . 14
    2.1.3.2. Resource endowments . 14
    2.1.3.3. Availability of credit . 16
    2.1.3.4. Economies of scale 16
    2.1.3.5. Technological Gap (Benefits of an Early Start) and Product Cycle . 17
    2.1.3.6. Demand Patterns: Demand Considerations . 17
    2.1.3.7. National and International Policies . 17
    2.1.3.8. Factors affecting export performance . 18
    2.1.4. Comparative Advantage framework . 21
    2.1.5. Competitive advantage . 21
    2.1.6. Linking comparative advantage and competitive advantage 24
    2.1.7. Measuring comparative advantage . 27
    2.1.7.1. Balassa’s Index of Revealed Comparative Advantage . 27
    2.1.7.2. The Donges and Riedel Measure 27
    2.1.7.3. Wolter Index 28
    2.1.7.4. Michaely Index 28
    2.1.7.5. Export Share Ratio 29
    Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 30
    3.1. Measuring comparative advantage . 30
    3.1.1. Revealed comparative advantage . 30
    3.1.2. Trade balance index 31
    3.1.3. Trade specialization 32
    3.1.4. Market share . 32
    3.1.5. Alternative Specifications of Revealed Comparative Advantage 33
    3.2. Analyzing the Structural Stability . 34
    3.2.1. Stability of Revealed Comparative Advantage 34
    3.2.2. Intra-Distribution Dynamics . 35
    3.3. Indices of Mobility 36
    3.3.1. Shorrocks Index (M1
    ) . 36
    3.3.2. Shorrocks Index (M2
    ) . 37
    3.3.3. Sommers and Conlisk Index (M4
    ) 37
    3.4. Measure of Export Concentration . 37
    3.5. Trade Compatibility 38
    3.6. Modeling the determinants of comparative advantage . 38
    3.6.1. Model description . 38
    3.6.2. Model specification 40
    3.6.3. Choosing between FEM and REM . 41
    3.7. Data sources 41
    Chapter 4: EMPIRICAL FINDINGS . 43
    4.1. Vietnam’s Export Performance in Textile and Clothing 43
    4.1.1. Overview of Vietnam’s Economy and Textile and Clothing Exports 43
    4.1.2. Structure of Vietnam’s Textile and Clothing Exports 45
    4.1.3. Direction of Vietnam’s textile and clothing exports 47
    4.2. Patterns of Vietnam’s Comparative Advantage in Textile and Clothing . 51
    4.2.1. Patterns of Vietnam’s Comparative Advantage in Textile and Clothing . 51
    4.2.2. The Dynamics of Vietnam’s Comparative Advantage in Textile and Clothing53
    4.2.3. Concentration of Vietnam Textile and Clothing Exports . 56
    4.3. Determinants of Vietnam’s Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in
    Textile and Clothing . 57
    4.4. Trade Complementary and Forecasting Vietnam’s Potential Exports 63
    Chapter 5: CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS 65
    APPENDICES . 67
    REFERENCES . 69


    ABSTRACT
    This Study is the first to attempt a systematic evaluation of the comparative
    advantage for Vietnam’s Textile and Clothing Industry in the global market.
    The study is timely as Vietnam has made an extensive effort to change its
    international trade for some years and the consequent increase in competitive
    pressures and technology transfers, is expected to have led to a restructuring of the
    economy such that the composition of Textile and Clothing exports Volumne
    reflects Vietnam’s comparative advantage in the global economy.
    The timeliness of the study is also reinforced by the fact that increased trade
    integration of Vietnam over the past few years is likely to have contributed to a shift
    in comparative advantage in Textlile and Clothing Industry in the world market.
    The Study identifies the pattern of comparative advantage using the
    Balassa (1989) index for export data. The index has been calculated at the sector and
    commodity level of the Harmonized System of classification. The Dissertation also
    analyses comparative advantage according to factor intensity. The analysis shows
    broad in the structure of comparative advantage of Vietnam’s Textile and Clothing
    Industry.
    I do hope that this Dissertation will serve as a useful source and provide valuable
    reference material for researchers and policy makers associated with and interested in
    export promotion strategy in Vietnam.


    Chapter 1
    INTRODUCTION
    1.1. Problem Statement
    The textile and clothing industry has been historically the core industrial sector in Vietnam’s
    economy due to its advantage in terms of factor endowments and market scale. Many
    reasons explain why this has long been the key industry of Vietnam: it is a sector with
    requires light investment; the technology is simple; it mostly uses unskilled labor, etc.
    During the past years, Vietnam’s textile industry has made remarkable efforts and become a
    main component in the textile industry in Southeast Asia and an important member in the
    global textile market. With around 3,800 companies including state-owned enterprises, joint
    stock and limited companies, the textile and clothing industry is the leading export sector of
    Vietnam, making a considerable contribution to the country’s prosperity.
    Vietnam’s textile and clothing industry has developed rapidly in recent years and has
    become a main component of the country’s economy. The export value of textile and
    clothing products has contributed the second largest share in the country’s total export
    value. This sector has helped significantly to the increase in source of foreign exchange and
    Vietnam’s gross national product (GDP). In 2006, the export value of the textile and
    clothing products was 5.8 billion US dollars, making this industry the second most
    important export sector of Vietnam only after crude oil. In 2007, Vietnam became an
    official member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This has provided Vietnam great
    opportunities to develop, especially in terms of international trade as Vietnam receives equal
    treatment and benefits in trade like other members of WTO, and it was not be subjected to
    quotas anymore. Moreover, joining the WTO helps Vietnam access to global market,
    expand export markets and increase value of goods exported. The textile and clothing
    industry sector has seen an impressive period of development, with the trade volume
    increasing around 8% after ten years, from 2001 to 2011. Despite the global economic
    depression during the past years, the export value of this sector has continued to increase,
    exceeding 11 billion USD in 2010, an increase of 24% compared with 2009, and 14 billion
    USD in 2011, an increase of 38% compared with 2010. The production and exports of
    Vietnamese textile and clothing products contribute a considerable share in the world,
    accounting for 18.6% of the world’s total exports in textile industry in 2010. Currently,
    Vietnam ranks number five in the world in terms of textile and clothing exports, with over 2
    million people working in this sector, accounting for nearly 5% of the country’s total labor
    force (VINATEX, 2012). The increase in export value of the sector in recent years results
    from the expansion in export market. Beside maintaining the traditional markets such as the
    US, EU, Japan, the Vietnamese textile and clothing companies has expanded to new export
    markets such as Korea, Taiwan, the Middle East, and Singapore.
    Rapid development of Vietnam’s textile and clothing industry derives from many factors,
    including abundant low-cost labor force and a stable political environment. Among them,
    the most important advantage is human capital. The Vietnamese labor force has two main
    characteristics, the first is its low price as well as the higher quality compared with some
    other countries. Vietnam has a young population with a high percentage of people at
    working age, an annual source supplementing the country’s labor force. Vietnam has gained
    many economic benefits in the textile industry without a loss of the comparative advantage
    in labor supply, and such an advantage is a driving force for the textile and clothing
    industry’s further development. The second characteristic is its sustainability. Expansion of
    urbanization and improvement in education in Vietnam has provided more high quality
    labor for the textile and clothing industry, guaranteeing the supply of workers for future
    development.
    Besides, trade and economic policies have also contributed to the development of the
    Vietnamese textile and clothing industry and helping Vietnam reach higher position in
    global market of textile and clothing products. Textile and clothing industry has been
    declared as an key industry of the country’s economy. Therefore, the Vietnamese
    government has adopted policies promoting an export-led growth strategy supported by
    strong foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. The state monopoly of foreign trade was
    abandoned. The non tariff barriers were reduced. Maximum import tariff rates were also
    decreased. These measures have helped to reduce the anti-export bias resulting from the
    structure of trade protection, which tended to reduce the profitability of exporting compared
    to producing for the domestic market (Athukorala, 2006 cited in Jean-Rafael and Jean
    Pierre, 2009). Tariff exemptions were also implemented for imported inputs used in the
    manufacturing export products as well as tax incentives and Export processing zones have
    multiplied (Jean-Rafael and Jean Pierre, 2009). Implementation of trade agreements have
    affected trade liberalization and increased market access. After joining international
    economic organizations such as ASEAN (in 1997) and WTO (in 2007), and signing bilateral
    trade agreements (for example, with US in 2000), tariffs on imports and exports were
    significantly reduced or dropped, bringing various economic gains and especially increased
    market access.
    It is obvious that Vietnam possesses a comparative advantage in textile and clothing
    manufacturing. Nonetheless, Vietnam’s textile industry is facing various difficulties, such as
    excessive resource reliance, most enterprises are medium and small size, low technology
    and value added, indisposition in trade structure and highly concentrated export markets.
    Another difficulty is the workers’ low level of skill, partly resulting in the low
    competitiveness of textile products. Vietnamese textile workers are considered inferior in
    terms of professional skills compared with other textile export countries. Among over 2
    million people working in textile and clothing sector, percentage of skillful workers are
    relative low.
    Furthermore, supporting industries of textile and clothing manufacturing are still
    undeveloped and cannot meet the demand from this sector. Domestic materials for this
    industry are seriously deficient and the textile company are unable to rely on domestic
    suppliers. Despite Vietnam having a natural conditions suitable for growing cotton, the total
    cotton output is still not enough to provide for the textile industry. In 2007, Vietnamese
    textile and clothing companies had to import around 90% of cotton material needed, and
    70% of other materials for manufacturing such as fiber and fabric. Shortage of local
    materials in one of main reasons resulting in decrease in business efficiency and in
    comparative advantage of Vietnamese textile and clothing enterprises.
    On the other hand, the textile and clothing industry is labor intensive. Development of the
    Vietnam’s textile and clothing industry is still determined by labor costs. Vietnam’s
    comparative advantage in textile industry mainly result from low labor costs. However, this
    kind of advantage is tending to decrease as developed countries are persistently investing
    new technologies into their textile and clothing industries and the advantage of cheap labor
    in developing countries tends to be weakened along with improvement in productivity in
    developed countries. The developed countries can maintain higher profit in their textile and
    clothing industry while at the same time reduce production.
    It is therefore urgent for Vietnam have policies and measures to strengthen comparative
    advantage of textile industry and overcome serious domestic obstacles. This dissertation
    aims at an in-depth investigation of comparative advantage of Vietnam’s textile and
    clothing industry and brings corresponding suggestions.
    1.2. Objectives
    1.2.1. General Objective


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