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    THẠC SĨ Assessment of cadmium flows related to domestic activities and proposal of recovery solutions

    webtailieu webtailieu Đang Ngoại tuyến (2053 tài liệu)
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  6. Assessment of cadmium flows related to domestic activities and proposal of recovery solutions

    INTRODUCTION

    Cadmium is usually found in trace amounts as a component of the surface soil, sediments and surface water, and in the air. However, most of the cadmium in the environment results directly from human activities. Cadmium is not essential toliving organisms. It enters the human body via food, smoking, and inhalation ofcontaminated air. It is extremely dangerous as it is easily absorbed and remains inthe tissues for a long time. Because of the slow rate of cadmium excretion, levels inthe body increase with age in situations of chronic exposure. Human kidney disease(renal dysfunction) is one result of such long-term exposure (WHO 1992). Assessment of cadmium flows by material flow analysis method originally developed by Baccini and Brunner, 1991; can provide a holistic picture of resource use and loss in a geographic region in a specific year. In industrialized countries, MFA proved to be a suitable instrument for the early recognition of environmental problems and development of countermeasure. It can be applied to analyze resource flows in a city, particularly to evaluate the impact of changes in consumption patterns, solid waste and wastewater treatment infrastructure, peri-urban agricultural production, including waste and wastewater reuse practices on resource consumption and environmental pollution. It also provides useful information for planners and decision-makers and could help improve resource management of areas in developing countries. However, limited data availability, reliability and data collection means (available laboratory equipment, trained laboratory staff, financial and human resources) are common problems faced by developingcountries and restrain the use of MFA as a policy-making tool.

    The aim of this study is to apply MFA to analyze the cadmium flows through domestic activities to the environment. The study areas are 3 communes (Co Loa – peri-urban area, Tho Xuan – rural area and Duong Lieu - craft village area. Contents of thesis include:
    9 Description and understanding the activities related to cadmium flows
    9 Qualification and quantification these flows
    9 Recommendation of appropriate solutions for cadmium recovery

    TABLE OF CONTENT
    ABSTRACTS . 1
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 2
    TABLE OF CONTENT 3
    LIST OF TABLES 5
    LIST OF FIGURES 7
    ABBREVIATIONS . 8
    INTRODUCTION 9
    CHAPTER 1 – LITERATURE REVIEW 11
    1.1. Overview of cadmium usage and environmental concerns 11
    1.1.1. Sources and emissions 11
    1.1.2. Fate, transport and transformation of cadmium in environment . 16
    1.1.3. Effect of cadmium on human health and environment . 18
    1.2. Overview of MFA . 21
    1.2.1. Terminology used in MFA . 22
    1.2.2. MFA procedure . 24
    1.2.3. Application of MFA 25
    1.2.4. Some MFA case studies 27
    CHAPTER 2 – APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY 38
    2.1. Description of study area and scope . 38
    2.1.1. Co Loa commune 38
    2.1.2. Tho Xuan commune 40
    2.1.3. Duong Lieu commune . 41
    2.2. Methodology . 42
    2.2.1. System analysis . 43
    2.2.2. Data collection 43
    4
    2.2.3. Modelling approach 44
    CHAPTER 3 - RESULTS . 46
    3.1. Result of cadmium flows identification (qualitative analysis) . 46
    3.1.1. Co Loa commune 46
    3.1.2. Tho Xuan commune 49
    3.1.3. Duong Lieu commune . 53
    3.2. Result of Cd flows calculation (quantitative analysis) 57
    3.2.1. Cd flows calculation concerning with the activities in households 57
    3.2.2. Cd flows calculation concerning with the activities in markets . 61
    3.2.3. Cd flows calculation concerning with industry 64
    3.2.4. Cd flows calculation concerning with farmland . 65
    3.2.5. Cd flows calculation concerning with livestock . 68
    3.2.6. Cd flows calculation concerning with aquaculture . 70
    3.2.7. Cd flows calculation concerning with S&D . 72
    3.2.8. Cd flows calculation concerning with on-site sanitation 75
    3.2.9. Cd flows calculation concerning with biogas . 79
    3.2.10. Cd flows calculation concerning with intermediate waste storage . 80
    3.2.11. Quantitative diagram . 81
    3.3. Proposal of Cd recovery solutions 82
    3.3.1. Solutions to recover Cd in solid waste 82
    3.3.2. Solutions to recover Cd in liquid waste 85
    CONCLUSIONS . 88
    REFERENCES 90
    ANNEXES 95

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