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    THẠC SĨ Understanding GPS

    Mit Barbie Mit Barbie Đang Ngoại tuyến (2263 tài liệu)
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  6. Understanding GPS

    Tài liệu đầy đủ về GPS. Hỗ trợ những sinh viên, giáo viên cần thông tin về môn GPS( HỆ THỐNG ĐỊNH VỊ TOÀN CẦU).


    Contents
    Preface xv
    Acknowledgments xvii
    CHAPTER 1
    Introduction 1
    1.1 Introduction 1
    1.2 Condensed GPS Program History 2
    1.3 GPS Overview 3
    1.3.1 PPS 4
    1.3.2 SPS 4
    1.4 GPS Modernization Program 5
    1.5 GALILEO Satellite System 6
    1.6 Russian GLONASS System 7
    1.7 Chinese BeiDou System 8
    1.8 Augmentations 10
    1.9 Markets and Applications 10
    1.9.1 Land 11
    1.9.2 Aviation 12
    1.9.3 Space Guidance 13
    1.9.4 Maritime 14
    1.10 Organization of the Book 14
    References 19
    CHAPTER 2
    Fundamentals of Satellite Navigation 21
    2.1 Concept of Ranging Using TOA Measurements 21
    2.1.1 Two-Dimensional Position Determination 21
    2.1.2 Principle of Position Determination Via
    Satellite-Generated Ranging Signals 24
    2.2 Reference Coordinate Systems 26
    2.2.1 Earth-Centered Inertial Coordinate System 27
    2.2.2 Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed Coordinate System 28
    2.2.3 World Geodetic System 29
    2.2.4 Height Coordinates and the Geoid 32
    2.3 Fundamentals of Satellite Orbits 34
    2.3.1 Orbital Mechanics 34
    2.3.2 Constellation Design 43
    2.4 Position Determination Using PRN Codes 50
    2.4.1 Determining Satellite-to-User Range 51
    2.4.2 Calculation of User Position 54
    vii
    2.5 Obtaining User Velocity 58
    2.6 Time and GPS 61
    2.6.1 UTC Generation 61
    2.6.2 GPS System Time 62
    2.6.3 Receiver Computation of UTC (USNO) 62
    References 63
    CHAPTER 3
    GPS System Segments 67
    3.1 Overview of the GPS System 67
    3.1.1 Space Segment Overview 67
    3.1.2 Control Segment (CS) Overview 68
    3.1.3 User Segment Overview 68
    3.2 Space Segment Description 68
    3.2.1 GPS Satellite Constellation Description 69
    3.2.2 Constellation Design Guidelines 71
    3.2.3 Space Segment Phased Development 71
    3.3 Control Segment 87
    3.3.1 Current Configuration 88
    3.3.2 CS Planned Upgrades 100
    3.4 User Segment 103
    3.4.1 GPS Set Characteristics 103
    3.4.2 GPS Receiver Selection 109
    References 110
    CHAPTER 4
    GPS Satellite Signal Characteristics 113
    4.1 Overview 113
    4.2 Modulations for Satellite Navigation 113
    4.2.1 Modulation Types 113
    4.2.2 Multiplexing Techniques 115
    4.2.3 Signal Models and Characteristics 116
    4.3 Legacy GPS Signals 123
    4.3.1 Frequencies and Modulation Format 123
    4.3.2 Power Levels 133
    4.3.3 Autocorrelation Functions and Power Spectral Densities 135
    4.3.4 Cross-Correlation Functions and CDMA Performance 140
    4.4 Navigation Message Format 142
    4.5 Modernized GPS Signals 145
    4.5.1 L2 Civil Signal 145
    4.5.2 L5 147
    4.5.3 M Code 148
    4.5.4 L1 Civil Signal 150
    4.6 Summary 150
    References 150
    viii Contents
    CHAPTER 5
    Satellite Signal Acquisition, Tracking, and Data Demodulation 153
    5.1 Overview 153
    5.2 GPS Receiver Code and Carrier Tracking 155
    5.2.1 Predetection Integration 158
    5.2.2 Baseband Signal Processing 159
    5.2.3 Digital Frequency Synthesis 161
    5.2.4 Carrier Aiding of Code Loop 162
    5.2.5 External Aiding 164
    5.3 Carrier Tracking Loops 164
    5.3.1 Phase Lock Loops 165
    5.3.2 Costas Loops 166
    5.3.3 Frequency Lock Loops 170
    5.4 Code Tracking Loops 173
    5.5 Loop Filters 179
    5.6 Measurement Errors and Tracking Thresholds 183
    5.6.1 PLL Tracking Loop Measurement Errors 184
    5.6.2 FLL Tracking Loop Measurement Errors 192
    5.6.3 C/A and P(Y) Code Tracking Loop Measurement Errors 194
    5.6.4 Modernized GPS M Code Tracking Loop Measurement Errors 199
    5.7 Formation of Pseudorange, Delta Pseudorange, and Integrated Doppler 200
    5.7.1 Pseudorange 201
    5.7.2 Delta Pseudorange 216
    5.7.3 Integrated Doppler 218
    5.8 Signal Acquisition 219
    5.8.1 Tong Search Detector 223
    5.8.2 M of N Search Detector 227
    5.8.3 Direct Acquisition of GPS Military Signals 229
    5.9 Sequence of Initial Receiver Operations 231
    5.10 Data Demodulation 232
    5.11 Special Baseband Functions 233
    5.11.1 Signal-to-Noise Power Ratio Meter 233
    5.11.2 Phase Lock Detector with Optimistic and Pessimistic Decisions 233
    5.11.3 False Frequency Lock and False Phase Lock Detector 235
    5.12 Use of Digital Processing 235
    5.13 Considerations for Indoor Applications 237
    5.14 Codeless and Semicodeless Processing 239
    References 240
    CHAPTER 6
    Interference, Multipath, and Scintillation 243
    6.1 Overview 243
    6.2 Radio Frequency Interference 243
    6.2.1 Types and Sources of RF Interference 244
    6.2.2 Effects of RF Interference on Receiver Performance 247
    6.2.3 Interference Mitigation 278
    6.3 Multipath 279
    Contents ix
    6.3.1 Multipath Characteristics and Models 281
    6.3.2 Effects of Multipath on Receiver Performance 285
    6.3.3 Multipath Mitigation 292
    6.4 Ionospheric Scintillation 295
    References 297
    CHAPTER 7
    Performance of Stand-Alone GPS 301
    7.1 Introduction 301
    7.2 Measurement Errors 302
    7.2.1 Satellite Clock Error 304
    7.2.2 Ephemeris Error 305
    7.2.3 Relativistic Effects 306
    7.2.4 Atmospheric Effects 308
    7.2.5 Receiver Noise and Resolution 319
    7.2.6 Multipath and Shadowing Effects 319
    7.2.7 Hardware Bias Errors 320
    7.2.8 Pseudorange Error Budgets 321
    7.3 PVT Estimation Concepts 322
    7.3.1 Satellite Geometry and Dilution of Precision in GPS 322
    7.3.2 Accuracy Metrics 328
    7.3.3 Weighted Least Squares (WLS) 332
    7.3.4 Additional State Variables 333
    7.3.5 Kalman Filtering 334
    7.4 GPS Availability 334
    7.4.1 Predicted GPS Availability Using the Nominal 24-Satellite
    GPS Constellation 335
    7.4.2 Effects of Satellite Outages on GPS Availability 337
    7.5 GPS Integrity 343
    7.5.1 Discussion of Criticality 345
    7.5.2 Sources of Integrity Anomalies 345
    7.5.3 Integrity Enhancement Techniques 346
    7.6 Continuity 360
    7.7 Measured Performance 361
    References 375
    CHAPTER 8
    Differential GPS 379
    8.1 Introduction 379
    8.2 Spatial and Time Correlation Characteristics of GPS Errors 381
    8.2.1 Satellite Clock Errors 381
    8.2.2 Ephemeris Errors 382
    8.2.3 Tropospheric Errors 384
    8.2.4 Ionospheric Errors 387
    8.2.5 Receiver Noise and Multipath 390
    8.3 Code-Based Techniques 391
    8.3.1 Local-Area DGPS 391
    x Contents
    8.3.2 Regional-Area DGPS 394
    8.3.3 Wide-Area DGPS 395
    8.4 Carrier-Based Techniques 397
    8.4.1 Precise Baseline Determination in Real Time 398
    8.4.2 Static Application 418
    8.4.3 Airborne Application 420
    8.4.4 Attitude Determination 423
    8.5 Message Formats 425
    8.5.1 Version 2.3 425
    8.5.2 Version 3.0 428
    8.6 Examples 429
    8.6.1 Code Based 429
    8.6.2 Carrier Based 450
    References 454
    CHAPTER 9
    Integration of GPS with Other Sensors and Network Assistance 459
    9.1 Overview 459
    9.2 GPS/Inertial Integration 460
    9.2.1 GPS Receiver Performance Issues 460
    9.2.2 Inertial Sensor Performance Issues 464
    9.2.3 The Kalman Filter 466
    9.2.4 GPSI Integration Methods 470
    9.2.5 Reliability and Integrity 488
    9.2.6 Integration with CRPA 489
    9.3 Sensor Integration in Land Vehicle Systems 491
    9.3.1 Introduction 491
    9.3.2 Review of Available Sensor Technology 496
    9.3.3 Sensor Integration Principles 515
    9.4 Network Assistance 522
    9.4.1 Historical Perspective of Assisted GPS 526
    9.4.2 Requirements of the FCC Mandate 528
    9.4.3 Total Uncertainty Search Space 535
    9.4.4 GPS Receiver Integration in Cellular Phones—Assistance Data
    from Handsets 540
    9.4.5 Types of Network Assistance 543
    References 554
    CHAPTER 10
    GALILEO 559
    10.1 GALILEO Program Objectives 559
    10.2 GALILEO Services and Performance 559
    10.2.1 Open Service (OS) 560
    10.2.2 Commercial Service (CS) 562
    10.2.3 Safety of Life (SOL) Service 562
    10.2.4 Public Regulated Service (PRS) 562
    10.2.5 Support to Search and Rescue (SAR) Service 563
    Contents xi
    10.3 GALILEO Frequency Plan and Signal Design 563
    10.3.1 Frequencies and Signals 563
    10.3.2 Modulation Schemes 565
    10.3.3 SAR Signal Plan 576
    10.4 Interoperability Between GPS and GALILEO 577
    10.4.1 Signal in Space 577
    10.4.2 Geodetic Coordinate Reference Frame 578
    10.4.3 Time Reference Frame 578
    10.5 System Architecture 579
    10.5.1 Space Segment 581
    10.5.2 Ground Segment 585
    10.6 GALILEO SAR Architecture 591
    10.7 GALILEO Development Plan 592
    References 594
    CHAPTER 11
    Other Satellite Navigation Systems 595
    11.1 The Russian GLONASS System 595
    11.1.1 Introduction 595
    11.1.2 Program Overview 595
    11.1.3 Organizational Structure 597
    11.1.4 Constellation and Orbit 597
    11.1.5 Spacecraft Description 599
    11.1.6 Ground Support 602
    11.1.7 User Equipment 604
    11.1.8 Reference Systems 605
    11.1.9 GLONASS Signal Characteristics 606
    11.1.10 System Accuracy 611
    11.1.11 Future GLONASS Development 612
    11.1.12 Other GLONASS Information Sources 614
    11.2 The Chinese BeiDou Satellite Navigation System 615
    11.2.1 Introduction 615
    11.2.3 Program History 616
    11.2.4 Organization Structure 617
    11.2.5 Constellation and Orbit 617
    11.2.6 Spacecraft 617
    11.2.7 RDSS Service Infrastructure 618
    11.2.8 RDSS Navigation Services 621
    11.2.9 RDSS Navigation Signals 622
    11.2.10 System Coverage and Accuracy 623
    11.2.11 Future Developments 623
    11.3 The Japanese QZSS Program 625
    11.3.1 Introduction 625
    11.3.2 Program Overview 625
    11.3.3 Organizational Structure 626
    11.3.4 Constellation and Orbit 626
    11.3.5 Spacecraft Development 627
    xii Contents
    11.3.6 Ground Support 628
    11.3.7 User Equipment 628
    11.3.8 Reference Systems 628
    11.3.9 Navigation Services and Signals 628
    11.3.10 System Coverage and Accuracy 629
    11.3.11 Future Development 629
    Acknowledgments 630
    References 630
    CHAPTER 12
    GNSS Markets and Applications 635
    12.1 GNSS: A Complex Market Based on Enabling Technologies 635
    12.1.1 Market Scope, Segmentation, and Value 638
    12.1.2 Unique Aspects of GNSS Market 639
    12.1.3 Market Limitations, Competitive Systems, and Policy 640
    12.2 Civil Navigation Applications of GNSS 641
    12.2.1 Marine Navigation 642
    12.2.2 Air Navigation 645
    12.2.3 Land Navigation 646
    12.3 GNSS in Surveying, Mapping, and Geographical Information Systems 647
    12.3.1 Surveying 648
    12.3.2 Mapping 648
    12.3.3 GIS 649
    12.4 Recreational Markets for GNSS-Based Products 650
    12.5 GNSS Time Transfer 650
    12.6 Differential Applications and Services 650
    12.6.1 Precision Approach Aircraft Landing Systems 651
    12.6.2 Other Differential Systems 651
    12.6.3 Attitude Determination Systems 652
    12.7 GNSS and Telematics and LBS 652
    12.8 Creative Uses for GNSS 654
    12.9 Government and Military Applications 654
    12.9.1 Military User Equipment—Aviation, Shipboard, and Land 655
    12.9.2 Autonomous Receivers—Smart Weapons 656
    12.9.3 Space Applications 657
    12.9.4 Other Government Applications 657
    12.10 User Equipment Needs for Specific Markets 657
    12.11 Financial Projections for the GNSS Industry 660
    References 661
    APPENDIX A
    Least Squares and Weighted Least Squares Estimates 663
    Reference 664
    APPENDIX B
    Stability Measures for Frequency Sources 665
    B.1 Introduction 665
    Contents xiii
    B.2 Frequency Standard Stability 665
    B.3 Measures of Stability 667
    B.3.1 Allan Variance 667
    B.3.2 Hadamard Variance 667
    References 668
    APPENDIX C
    Free-Space Propagation Loss 669
    C.1 Introduction 669
    C.2 Free-Space Propagation Loss 669
    C.3 Conversion Between PSDs and PFDs 673
    References 673
    About the Authors 675
    Index 683
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