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    THẠC SĨ Morphological and syntactic competencies of first year college students of Thai Nguyen University System Bases for integrative learning exercises

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  6. Morphological and syntactic competencies of first year college students of Thai Nguyen University System Bases for integrative learning exercises

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    3

    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines

    ABSTRACT
    Title : Morphological and Syntactic Competencies of
    First Year College Students of Thai Nguyen
    University System: Bases for Integrative
    Learning Exercises
    Author : Duong Thi Hoa Lu
    Degree : Doctor of Philosophy
    Major : English
    Adviser : Dr. Matilda H. Dimaano
    Year : 2015
    __________________________________________________ _____________
    Summary
    This study aimed to determine the morphological and syntactic
    competencies of first year college students in English Language at Thai
    Nguyen University System, Vietnam. The study covered the level of
    morphological competency of student respondents in terms of meaning of root
    words, affixes, pre-fixes, suffixes, word derivation, word formation and
    compounding of words. Part also of this study is the level of syntactic
    competency of student respondents relative to phrases, clauses, sentences
    and functions. This also covered the assessment of teachers on the students‟
    morphological and syntactic competencies, the significant difference on the
    level of this competency with the integrative language exercise as the output to
    enhance the students‟ English language competencies.


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines

    The study included the 400 first year college students and 70 teachers in
    Basic English Course in the Academic Year 2014-2015. This study tested the
    following hypothesis that there are no significant differences on the levels of
    morpho-syntactic competency of students and the assessment of the English
    language teachers. It made use of the descriptive method of research with
    survey questionnaire and teacher-made test as the main data gathering
    instruments. The data gathered were statistically treated with the use of
    percentage, weighted mean, standard deviation, independent t-test.
    Findings of the study revealed that as regards levels of understanding of
    students in morphology particularly in meaning of root words result indicates
    that the students‟ levels of competencies in this area of morphology is average
    with a fair number of students‟ demonstrating a reasonable degree of
    competence. In prefixes, affixes and suffixes results showed that the total
    rating obtained by the students on this area is 59.12 percent which indicates
    that the students‟ competency in this area is average and is at par with the
    competency in the meaning of the root words. As for word derivation the total
    rating obtained by the students on this area 63.25 percent which falls under the
    average level of classification which indicates that the freshman students‟ have
    developed a certain level of adeptness in word derivation.



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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    In word formation, the total rating obtained by students in this
    morphology skill component which is 52.85 percent with the verbal equivalent
    rating of average indicates that the students are finding some difficulties along
    this area. In relation to compounding of words, findings revealed that the
    students‟ obtained a total rating of 61.15 percent with a verbal equivalent rating
    of average in this morphology skill component which indicates that the
    freshman students has developed skills in compounding.
    Relative to the levels of students‟ competencies in the use of syntax
    particularly in phrases, the total rating obtained for this component area is
    51.95 percent or verbally equivalent to average which means that the students
    demonstrate a certain degree of proficiency in this syntax skill. As for clauses,
    results showed that the total rating obtained by students is 47.30 percent or its
    equivalent of average which implies that the student competency on clauses
    are average but below the 50 percent cut-off value. For sentences, the total
    rating students obtained is 60.50 percent or average which implies that the
    students find the test easier and have demonstrated more advanced skill and
    competency in sentences. As regards functions the total rating of the students‟
    competency is 49.95 percent or average which implies that the students
    demonstrated some degree of proficiency on syntactic functions.



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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    In relation to comparison of the levels of competencies in morphology
    and syntax, results show that in 22 out of 28 mean comparisons, the p-values
    are less than 0.05 which means that the morphology and syntax competencies
    corresponding to this means are significantly different and are therefore not
    related. In six out of 28 mean comparisons, the p-values were greater than
    0.05 which means that the morphology and syntax competencies
    corresponding to this means are not significantly different and so they are
    related to each other which means that in general, no relationship exist among
    these linguistic skills.
    With regards to teachers assessment of the morphological and syntactic
    competencies of students all the items obtained an agree score of 100 percent
    which means that the teacher respondents unanimously agree that the items
    raised can be used for the assessment of the students‟ morphological and
    syntactic competencies. According to the frequency of use of students‟ skills,
    11 out of 12 items had mean scores close to 3.0 or equivalent to sometimes
    and only one had mean scores close to 4.0 or equivalent to often which means
    that the teachers observed the students do not practice and use these skills as
    often in the class. For the assessment according to their degree of importance,
    result of assessment showed that all the 12 items had mean scores close to



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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    4.0 or equivalent to moderately important which means that the teachers
    regarded the 12 items as only moderately important skills to be developed by
    the students.
    In terms of the difference on the levels of morpho-syntactic
    competencies of the students and their performance as assessed by English
    teachers, results showed that eight out of 11 component items had a p-value
    that is below 0.05 which means that the teacher‟s assessment and students‟
    morpho-syntactic competencies along these areas are significantly different
    which suggests that no relationship exist between the treatment means being
    compared. Moreover, the integrative learning exercises on morpho-syntactic
    competencies designed are based on some criteria that are considered and
    used as concrete basis for the exercises to be included to address the needs
    of the students.
    The study recommended that teachers may be encouraged to attend
    more trainings, seminars and workshops along the areas of morphology and
    syntax to further enhance their teaching techniques; that output must be
    reviewed and evaluated, and similar studies be conducted by future
    researchers.



    ACKNOWLEDGMENT


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    The researcher acknowledges the following persons whose respective
    skills and competence contributed much to the completion of this study.
    Dr. Dang Kim Vui, President of Thai Nguyen University,Vietnam for
    giving me the opportunity to be included in the Ph.D. English Program in
    cooperation with Batangas State University, Philippines.
    Dr. Matilda H. Dimaano, Dissertation adviser for the whole hearted
    assistance in providing useful materials for references, and for her
    encouragement and precious time reading, reviewing, and checking the
    manuscript. Her guidance and expertise in research made this dissertation
    possible.
    The Panel of Examiners Dr. Myrna G. Sulit, Dr. Amada G. Banaag, Dr.
    Maria Luisa A. Valdez, Dr. Felix M. Panopio, for their commendable
    suggestions and ideas;
    Dr. Remedios P. Magnaye, Recording Secretary, for her commitment in
    preparing and encoding the minutes of defense proceedings;
    Dr. Nguyen The Hung, Director of the International Training Center Thai
    Nguyen University, for his moral support and encouragement;
    The English teachers and the student-respondents of the study, for their
    active involvement and cooperation;

    All friends who in one way or another provide support; and


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    Her parents and family, who serves as inspiration in this academic
    endeavor.

    Duong Thi Hoa Lu
































    DEDICATION



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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines

    This work is dedicated to my parents, family, and friends.

    Duong Thi Hoa Lu































    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Page


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    TITLE PAGE i
    APPROVAL SHEET ii
    ABSTRACT . iii
    ACKNOWLEDGMENT viii
    DEDICATION . x
    TABLE OF CONTENTS xi
    LIST OF TABLES xiv
    LIST OF FIGURES . xvi
    CHAPTER
    I. THE PROBLEM
    Introduction 1
    Statement of the Problem . 6
    Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study . 8
    Significance of the Study . 9
    II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
    Conceptual Literature . 11
    Research Literature 46

    Synthesis . 52
    Theoretical Framework . 54
    Conceptual Framework . 56


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    Hypothesis . 58
    Definition of Terms . 58
    III. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE
    Research Environment 61
    Research Design 62
    Subjects of the Study 63
    Data Gathering Instrument . 65
    Data Gathering Procedure . 67
    Statistical Treatment of Data 68
    IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF
    DATA 69
    V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
    Summary of Findings . 127
    Conclusions . 137
    Recommendation 138
    BIBLIOGRAPHY . 139

    APPENDICES 146
    A. Questionnaires . 147
    B. Letters of Request . 156
    C. Documentations . 163


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    D. Psychrometric Conversion Table . 168
    CURRICULUM VITAE 170





























    LIST OF TABLES
    Table Title Page
    1 Distribution of Population and Sample . 64
    2 Levels of Students‟ Performance in Meaning


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    of Root Words 70

    3 Levels of Students‟ Performance in Prefixes,
    Affixes and Suffixes . 72

    4 Levels of Students‟ Performance in Word Derivation . 74

    5 Levels of Students‟ Performance in Word Formation 75
    6 Levels of Students‟ Performance in Compounding
    Words 77

    7 Levels of Students‟ Performance in Phrases 80
    8 Levels of Students‟ Performance in Clauses 82
    9 Levels of Students‟ Performance in Sentences 84

    10 Levels of Students‟ Performance in Functions 86



    11 Comparison of the Students‟ Levels of Morphological
    and Syntactic Competencies . 88

    12 Students‟ Morphological and Syntactic Competencies
    Employed in Teaching the Basic English Course 91


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines

    13 Students‟ Morphological and Syntactic Competencies
    and their Frequency of Use 92

    14 Students‟ Morphological and Syntactic Competencies
    and their Degree of Importance 94

    15 Differences of the Students‟ Levels of Performance in
    Morpho-Syntactic Competencies and their Performance
    as Assessed by English Teachers 96

    16 Bases in the Design of Integrative Learning Exercises
    on Morpho-Syntactic Competencies . 98














    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure Title Page
    1 Research Paradigm of the Study 57




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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines


























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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines

    CHAPTER I
    THE PROBLEM
    Introduction
    Nowadays English is considered as the international language of
    communication, especially in the area of commerce, trade, media, culture, arts
    and education. It is known as a key to open the door into the bustling word of
    rapid changes and development. Teaching and learning English in Vietnam
    has received special attention since the country implemented the “open-door”
    policy. That is the reason why learning English is not only interesting but is
    also in a great and practical demand for many people especially for those who
    want to advance in their careers and to achieve their long term study goals.
    English is a compulsory subject from the elementary school up to senior
    school in today‟s Vietnam education system. It is considered a difficult subject
    for the Vietnamese students because English is completely different from
    Vietnamese language being looked at from the system of structure,
    pronunciation and vocabulary. In the study of the English language, it involves
    the four language skills namely listening, speaking, reading and writing.
    Aspects such as grammar, structure, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    are the focus in English teaching and learning process. For pedagogical
    reasons, specific skills may be focused on separately but there are two

    elements that are important to the process of acquiring and using a language
    and that is grammar and vocabulary.
    The element of understanding the English language consists of
    vocabulary items which makes it a very important segment in language
    teaching and learning aside from language structures and forms. So that
    grammatical and lexical aspects have a place in language teaching.
    According to Tikunoff (1983) students with limited English proficiency need
    these three kinds of competences which include participative competence which
    is the ability to respond appropriately to class demands and the procedural rules
    for accomplishing them; interactional competence, the ability to respond both to
    classroom rules of discourse and social rules of discourse interacting
    appropriately with peers and adults while accomplishing class tasks; and
    academic competence, the ability to acquire new skills, assimilate new
    information, and construct new concepts.
    Further, for students to be functionally proficient in the classroom, they
    must to be able to utilize these competences to perform these three major
    functions such as to decode and understand both task expectations and new


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    information, to engage appropriately in completing tasks, with high accuracy;
    and to obtain accurate feedback with relation to completing tasks accurately.

    In the study of English language, there are problems or difficulties
    encountered by students. Among the four skills, speaking is the most
    challenging as it involves a complex process of constructing meaning. The
    development of English learning on the other hand involves the use of real or
    authentic material which reflect social and cultural context of language.
    Students therefore must have exposure to English resource material for them
    to improve their communicative skills. They can also engage in some activities
    like filling forms, writing letters or engage in discussion as to the content of the
    reading material to enhance their comprehension. Failure of students to
    understand the language they hear leads to complete breakdown of
    communication so that students are challenged to make some attempts to
    understand language as native speaker does.
    Mastering the learning of language is crucial to most students. But there
    are methods, techniques and activities that would aid them to become
    proficient in the use of the language. Students who wish to learn English
    language must be able to make use of the four language components.


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    Morphology plays an important role in language learning. It focus on the
    understanding of language speakers to complex words and create new lexical
    items. Morphology knowledge about word as the smallest element that may be

    uttered in isolation and pragmatic content as well as morpheme which is the
    smallest unit of meaning and the composition of word which include single
    morpheme is very important to students who are learning the language.
    In morphology, students encountered difficulty in forming compound
    word where they are going to add affixes to the root. Similarly, they can‟t put
    together words in order to build larger elements of language such as phrases,
    clauses and sentences. Further, there are also difficulties in developing
    definition, giving of synonyms, and antonyms of certain words. So language
    teachers must look for a way to help students improve their language
    proficiency like utilizing instruction material fitted for the lesson that would
    make conversation of students prior knowledge to the new words so that
    students can make modifications of their existing framework of knowledge and
    whenever they meet these words in their readings they effectively construct
    meaning.
    Syntax on the other hand according to Chomsky (2002) is the set of
    rules, principles and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    given language. As a form of grammar, syntax is the study of rules that must
    be followed to have well-formed phrases, clauses and sentences and is
    concerned with the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences with

    correct agreement when they are used together. The structure of sentences
    which pertains to syntax must follow certain structural rules to have sense.
    Students can illustrate the patterns of English effectively and clearly as well as
    analyze the structure of English sentences in a systematic and explicit way
    through their knowledge of syntax.
    Language teachers must give emphasis in the context of the words.
    They can discuss the meaning through context clues from the reading
    selection or by defining the terms to give clarity to meaning for better
    understanding of students. Further, students must also be given requested
    exposure in the use of words in different situations and meanings and engage
    them in oral and written practice.
    As in the case of inflections and word formation, students has
    encountered problems relative to determining the correct syntax in sentences
    and what kind of inflection the word need in order to have a grammatically
    correct statement. In this situation, language teacher must give emphasis to
    the teaching of word order and give focus on the functions and relationship of


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    each word for students to develop their language proficiency. Producing
    appropriate grammatical utterance is not the only measure that students
    develop language proficiency but instead they must have the ability to produce

    and understand those utterances in a particular grammar sequence that is
    most appropriate to the linguistic and situational context.
    Further, students must develop their ability to apply grammatical rules of
    language in order for them to grammatically correct sentences and where and
    who to use these sentences and for whom. This indicates that in all aspects in
    the study of language, they must learn the appropriateness of its uses,
    communication with other people and culture as well as in linguistic and
    situational context.
    As an English language teacher teaching General English in Thai
    Nguyen University, difficulties in morphology along the areas of word
    formation, affixes, synonyms and antonyms as well as compounding and word
    functions were observed among freshman college students. This scenario,
    prompted the researcher to conduct a study along morpho-syntactic
    competency of first year college students with integrative language exercise as
    output to enhance students‟ morpho-syntactic competence.
    Statement of the Problem


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    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines
    This study aimed to determine the morpho- syntactic competencies of
    First year college students in English Language at Thai Nguyen University
    System, Vietnam.

    Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions;
    1. What is the level of performance of First Year College Students in
    the following morphological competencies:
    1.1 meaning of root words;
    1.2 prefixes, affixes and suffixes;
    1.3 word derivation;
    1.4 word formation; and
    1.5 compounding of words?
    2. What is the level of students‟ performance in the use of syntax
    relative to:
    2.1 phrases;
    2.2 clauses;
    2.3 sentences; and
    2.4 functions?
    3. How do levels of performance in morphological and syntactic
    competencies compare? Are there significant relationships?

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