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    THẠC SĨ Effects of organic insecticides on the performance of soybean (Glycine Max L.) varieties in Thai Nguyen, Viet Nam condition

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  6. Effects of organic insecticides on the performance of soybean (Glycine Max L.) varieties in Thai Nguyen, Viet Nam condition

    Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu - ĐHTN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn/



    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The author would like to express her heartfelt and warmest gratitude to the
    following persons who gave their valuable suggestions, immeasurable support,
    and for the strength and inspiration to finish this study.
    Dr. Nestor M. De Vera, University President, for his valuable ideas,
    comments, and suggestions for the improvement of this study.
    Dr. Lolita L. Beato, Dean of College of Agriculture and Adviser, for her
    guidance, motivation, valuable ideas and suggestions to make this study
    complete.
    Dr. Robert C. Agatep, Statistician, for the encouragement, patience and
    for helping her on the analysis and interpretation of data.
    Dr. Carlos J. Andam, Subject Specialist, for his brilliant ideas, comments
    and suggestions for the improvement of this study.
    Prof. Lydia R. Chavez, Technical Editor, for her comments and
    suggestions on the technical aspect of this study.
    Thanks to the farmers for lending his land area for the conduct of this study.
    Lastly, the author would like to thank his parents who always love,
    comfort, encourage and support in everything he needs to complete this study.
    THANH TRUNG DAM ii

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    ABSTRACT
    DAM THANH TRUNG, Laguna State Polytechnic University, Siniloan,
    Laguna. NOVEMBER 2014. “EFFECTS OF ORGANIC INSECTICIDES ON
    GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN (Glycine Max L.) VARIETIES IN THAI
    NGUYEN CONDITION, VIETNAM”. Adviser: Dr. Lolita L. Beato
    This research was conducted in Vietnam from June to October 2014 to
    determine the growth and yield performance of three varieties of soybeans using
    different sources of insecticides under Thai Nguyen condition in Vietnam.
    Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions: what are the
    significant differences among the performance of three varieties of soybeans?;
    which variety and insecticide sources or their combination will give better growth
    performance of soybeans in terms of plant height at maturity, number of days
    from transplanting to flowering, fruiting and harvesting and number of
    branches?; which variety and insecticide sources will give better yield
    performance of soybeans in terms of number of pods per plant, length and
    weight of pods per plant; weight of soybean seeds and yield per hectare?; which
    variety and insecticide sources will give lower number and percentage of
    infestation of soybean plants in terms of kinds of insects at different stages of
    plant and percentage of infestation a different stages of soybean plant?; are
    there significant interaction effects between and or among soybean varieties and
    sources of insecticides?; which variety of soybean and insecticide sources or
    their combination will be most suitable and economical to use in Thai Nguyen
    condition in Vietnam? iii

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    A 3x5 factorial experiment in a Randomized Complete Block design
    (RCBD) was used in the study with three finger pepper varieties ( A1- DT22, A2-
    DT26 and A3- DT51 variety) and five sources of insecticides B1- control, B2- 50L
    hoban 30EC /ha, B3- 50L hocsinh/ha, B4- 50L thaomo/ha and B5- 50L hattao/ha.
    Each treatment was replicated four times. Duncans’ Multiple Range Test (DMRT)
    was used to determine the significant differences between variety and fertilizer
    means.
    Result showed that the growth and yield performance of soybean plants
    were affected by varieties in terms of plant height, number of days from
    transplanting to flowering to fruiting, number of branches, length and weight of
    pods. Among the three varieties of soybean plants, DT 22 showed better growth
    and yield performance.
    Insect infestation of soybean plant is affected by the insecticides applied
    at fruiting stage. The yield and economic performance of soybean plants were
    affected by varieties and insecticides in terms of number of pods, weight of
    soybean seeds, yield per hectare, net income and return on expenses.
    Interaction effect was present in insect infestation at vegetative and
    flowering stage of soybean plants. Insect infestation is lower at the application of
    organic insecticide.
    Total sale, net income and return on expense of soybeans increased at
    the application of insecticide with the rate of 50L hocsinh/ha. iv

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    Since the growth, yield and economic performance of soybeans were
    significantly affected by varieties and fertilizer in terms of plant height, number of
    days from transplanting to flowering to fruiting, number of branches, length and
    weight of pods, number of pods per plant, weight of soybean seeds, yield per
    hectare, net income and return on expenses, the use of DT 22 variety and
    application of organic insecticide Hocsinc (chilli, garlic, corn bran and egg shell)
    at the rate of 50L/ha is being recommended.
    Replication of the same study in other areas and field is also
    recommended.

    1

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    Chapter 1

    THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

    Introduction
    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is the most valuable grain legume and the third
    crop in importance after rice (Oryza sativa) and corn (Zea mays L.) in Vietnam. It
    is a rich source of oil and protein. It is also processed into popular products in
    Vietnam such as soya-cheese, soya-cake, soya-milk, and cooking oil.In Vietnam,
    soybean is grown in about 130,000 ha, of which 42,000 ha (33%) is grown in the
    south of the country, consisting of the Eastern region and the Mekong Delta (Yen
    Thao, 2004).
    Vegetable soybean is rich in phytochemicals beneficial to the human
    being and is therefore considered a neutraceutical or a functional food crop.
    Edamame (vegetable soy bean) is well established legume in the human diet in
    Asia . The positive health benefits of soy have greatly increased consumer
    awareness of soy products and created a market potential for soy products
    (Beckman, 1997).
    Imports of soybeans in 2011 rose significantly due to the increased
    demand from the food processing, livestock, and aquaculture feed industries,
    and the vegetable oil industry combined with a zero percent import tariff.
    Vietnam’s soybean imports reached a record in 2011, surpassing one million
    metric tons (MMT). This represents a 350 percent increase over the previous
    year; 22 percent of the total imported volume was sourced from the United 2

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    States. Post expects imports of full-fat soybeans to steadily increase in the next
    three to five years. Soybean meal imports increased to a record 3.0 MMT to meet
    the growing demand from the livestock, and aquaculture feed sectors (Nguyen,
    2012).
    Demand for imported soybean meal is forecast to fall as new processing
    facilities come on-line in Vietnam. Already, we have seen a sharp increase in
    soybean imports in preparation for the opening of the first of two processing
    plants. Meal production is expected to grow through the latter-half of 2011 and
    attain peakproduction the following year. The full impact on meal imports will be
    felt in 2012 with an anticipated reduction in trade around 20 percent. This figure
    would be lower if not for continued growth in meal demand driven by expansion
    in the pork, poultry and aquaculture sectors. Although initial soybean sales have
    comepredominately from South America, there remains opportunity for future
    growth in U.S. sales to the region (United States Department of Agricuture,
    2011).
    In 2012, U.S. soybean exports to Vietnam reached a record of 461
    thousand metric tons (TMT), double the 2011 level due to high demand from the
    two commercial oilseed crushing facilities, and from the food industry. In 2013,
    U.S. soybean exports are expected to reach about 500 TMT. In 2012, Vietnam’s
    soybean meal (SBM) imports were 2.5 million metric tons (MMT). Post forecasts
    2013 and 2014 SBM imports to gradually decrease due, to 2.4 and 2.37 MMT,
    respectively, due to local production. Local soy oil production and exports have 3

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    been increasing in recent years as results of larger crush and greater oil
    availability. Soy oil exports are projected at 110 TMT and 120 TMT in 2013 and
    2014, accordingly (Nguyen, 2012).
    Productivity of soybeans in Asia, and particularly Vietnam, is low
    compared with elsewhere in the world. Vietnam’s average yields are 1t/ha
    compared with 1.3 t/ha in Thailand, 1.75 t/ha in Brazil and 2.25 t/ha in the USA.
    This low productivity is a problem because Vietnam needs more soybeans to
    satisfy a growing demand for stock feed and to improve the nutrition of the
    human population. The reasons for poor production in Vietnam have been clearly
    identified. One of the most significant is the fact that the varieties grown in
    summer have a growing period too short to produce the maximum yield possible
    for the season. Moreover, soybean is invariably treated as secondary to rice, and
    so receives less research attention, less fertilizer input, and less effort at insect
    control (James, 2006).
    With the various problems brought about by the increased use of chemical
    inputs, high quality seed production, especially on a commercial scale, should be
    through an alternative system, such as organic and biodynamic farming. This
    means reduced or zero use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, use of
    alternative nutrient sources like green manure crops, animal manure, compost,
    and the likes and more natural ways of pest and disease control, and an overall
    ecological approach to farming (Fernandez,2002). 4

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    The researcher was encouraged to study on how to increase yield of
    soybeans by controlling insect infestation through the use of organic insecticide
    under Thai Nguyen condition in Vietnam to help farmers increase their income.

    Background of the Study
    The demand in the production, consumption and processing of soybean in
    Vietnam is increasing. In order to increase soybean production to meet this
    demand, Vietnamese farmers are using high amount of chemical fertilizers and
    pesticides and intensive cropping practices. However, high-input practices such
    as heavy use of chemicals have created a variety of economic, environmental,
    ecological and social problems. Furthermore, the increasing costs of chemical
    inputs have left farmers helpless, resulting to decreasing seed quality of certain
    crops and resulting in the fall of commodity prices and consequently reducing
    farm incomes. In addition, in Vietnam, organic/sustainable agriculture is
    mistakenly equated with primitive, traditional, or subsistence agriculture and their
    low yields. Therefore, most Vietnamese farmers resist adopting sustainable
    agriculture for their crop production (Fernandez, 2002).
    Soybean is a crop of one plant species, however, differences caused by
    variety selection, planting date, cultural techniques, site, and season makes the
    crop highly variable in it's attractiveness to insect pests. In other words, all
    soybean fields are not alike, as far as attracting and building-up pest insects is
    concerned. If the organic soybean farmer recognizes these differences, he can 5

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    actually plan to manage the crop for reduced insect pest numbers or, when this is
    not possible, he can predict which of his fields are attractive and may need more
    attention to prevent yield loss. The organic soybean grower can normally rely
    upon reducing soybean attractiveness to pests, as well as beneficial insects to
    reduce pest numbers, and the soybean plant’s natural ability to compensate for
    insect damage (tolerance). In instances where caterpillar pests are not avoidable,
    organically approved Entrust insecticide may be successfully used (Reisig,
    2000).
    Vietnam began using pesticides as early as the 1950s, when agricultural
    production was limited to cooperatives, collective farms, and state farm
    enterprises. Under this regime, little knowledge existed of the hazards of
    pesticides, and with no regulation system. Application was centrally-run by
    brigades of 4-5 farmers who worked in conjunction with the Plant Protection
    Department (PPD). The PPD supplied pesticides at subsidized prices and
    recommended spraying on a calendar basis, with little or no attention to field
    conditions. Brigade interventions generally resulted in high costs but had little
    effect on pests and diseases (Chung and Dung, 2002).
    Pesticide use has been on the rise in Vietnam, notably over the past
    decade with a near doubling of consumption from 1990-1998. Field evidence
    has suggested that farmers are also misusing and overusing pesticides in order
    to maintain crop yields and production. As a consequence of this growing 6

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    dependence and hap-hazard use of pesticides, the prevalence of health
    impairments and environmental damage are mounting (Meisner, 2003).
    In addition to the alarming increase in pesticide use, there is also
    significant evidence suggesting that the substances being used are harmful to
    human health and the environment. In a nation-wide survey conducted by the
    PPD in 2000, 2,500 kg of banned pesticides were found (methamidophos, DDT
    and other chemicals), along with 4,753 liters and 5,645 kg of illegally imported or
    counterfeit pesticides (Plant Protection Department, 2000).
    In regards to the health impacts of pesticide use, hospital admission
    records in Vietnam trace nearly 11% of all poisonings to pesticide misuse: or
    approximately 840 poisonings in 53 cities and provinces in 1999 (Vietnam
    Ministry of Health, 2000).
    As an alternative to pesticide use, other pest management methods are
    possible and appear to be gaining traction in Vietnam. The main appeal to
    alternative methods is that the farmer decreases his/her use of pesticides and it
    is therefore considered a more “safer” alternative. Examples of other methods
    include Integrated Pest Management (IPM: an ecologically-based approach to
    control of harmful insects and weeds), biological control (use of natural or
    modified organisms, genes, or gene products to reduce the effects of pests and
    diseases), or organic methods (farming that avoids the use of synthetic
    chemicals and genetically modified organisms (Meisner, 2000).
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    In the mid 1990s there were a number of food safety scares resulting from
    inappropriate pesticide use and the Vietnamese Government were forced to act.
    In April 1998 the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) issued
    the 1“Temporary Regulations for the Production of Safe Vegetables”1. These
    regulations specify the required quality for safe vegetables and contain a number
    of tables showing the Maximum Residual Levels (MRLs) for permitted pesticides,
    nitrate content, heavy metal content and bacterial pathogens and intestinal
    parasites that are allowed in harvested vegetables. Vegetable farmers across
    Vietnam, particularly those around the major cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
    received training on safe vegetable production and integrated pest management
    (IPM) in an attempt to reduce pesticide residues in vegetables and improve food
    safety. The protection of human health appears o be the primary driver behind
    safe vegetable production (Phan et al., 2005).
    Thus, this study will be conducted to determine the effect of organic
    insecticide that will give better growth and yield performance of soybeans under
    Thai Nguyen condition in Vietnam.

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