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    THẠC SĨ Creating constructivist learning environments with digital storytelling

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  6. Creating constructivist learning environments with digital storytelling

    iii

    Abstract
    In recent years the use of new technologies in educational systems has increased worldwide,
    as digital cameras, personal computers, scanners, and easy-to-use software have become
    available to educators to harness the digital world. The impact of new technologies in
    educational contexts has been very positive; new technologies have given educators the
    opportunity to enhance their knowledge, skills, and therefore enhance the standard of
    education. Researchers have found that student engagement, achievement and motivation are
    enhanced through integration of such technologies. However, education systems still face
    many challenges: one of these challenges is how to enhance student engagement to provide
    better educational outcomes. It has become increasingly important to use innovative
    pedagogical models to engage learners. Digital storytelling is one of the innovative
    pedagogical approaches that can engage students in deep and meaningful learning.
    The mission of this research is to create a constructivist learning environment with
    digital storytelling. The research investigates the pedagogical aspects of digital storytelling
    and the impact of digital storytelling on student learning when teachers and students use
    digital stories. This research develops a new e-Learning Digital Storytelling (eLDiSt)
    framework. This framework is based on the needs and capabilities of learners at various
    stages of learning. A multi-site case study has been conducted in one Australian school at
    primary and secondary levels. In selected classrooms, students and teachers have the
    opportunity to engage in innovative learning experiences based on digital storytelling. In
    order to enhance the reliability and validity of the research, multiple methods of data
    collection and analysis have been used.
    Data was collected with qualitative and quantitative methods. Rubric evaluation has
    been used to collect quantitative data, while interviews and observation are used to collect iv

    qualitative data. Data collection was based on mixed methods research to evaluate if and how
    digital storytelling enhances teaching and learning outcomes.
    The findings from this study suggest that digital storytelling is a powerful tool to
    integrate instructional messages with learning activities to create more engaging and exciting
    learning environments. It is a meaningful approach for creating a constructive learning
    environment based on the principles of teaching and learning. Thus, this approach has the
    potential to enhance student engagement and provide better educational outcomes for
    learners.















    v

    Student Declaration
    “I, Najat Smeda, declare that the PhD thesis entitled “Creating Constructivist Learning
    Environments with Digital Storytelling” is no more than 100,000 words in length including
    quotes and exclusive of tables, figures, appendices, bibliography, references and footnotes.
    This thesis contains no material that has been submitted previously, in whole or in part, for
    the award of any other academic degree or diploma. Except where otherwise indicated, this
    thesis is my own work”.


    Signature: Date: 19/2/2014













    vi

    Acknowledgements
    First, I would like to pray to the GOD, thanking him for everything, and asking him for
    forgiveness and support. My full respect and thanks to my family my mother, my father, my
    husband and to my brothers and my sisters for their love, support, prayers and confidence.
    I would like to extend my deep thanks and gratitude to all the people who contributed to
    enrich my knowledge and improve my competencies.
    I extend my deep thanks to my principal supervisor Associate Professor Nalin Sharda,
    who guided me in this project, and provided me with valuable comments and advise, and to
    my co-supervisor Dr. Eva Dakich, without whose encouragement and support, this research
    would not have been completed. I am also grateful for the support I received from East
    Preston Islamic School; I would like to thank all the students and teachers who participate in
    this research. I would like also to thank Dr. Diane Brown for copyediting the thesis according
    to the Australian Standards for Editing Practice (2nd edn., 2013) and, in particular,
    Standards D and E. Also I would like to acknowledge the support and help provided by Prof.
    Neil Diamond and Dr. Ewa Sztendur for their statistical support during analysing the data.
    I would like to extend my thanks to my government, who made it possible, and
    offered me this scholarship to do my PhD and also the Libyan embassy staff for providing
    full support, solving all problems, and paving the way for a suitable study environment.
    Finally, I would like to thank all my peers, for all the fun we have had together in the last four
    years. vii


    List of Publications

    Smeda, N., Dakich, E., & Sharda, N. (2010). Developing A Framework for Advancing E-
    Learning through Digital Storytelling. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the IADIS Multi
    Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems. 26-31 July 2010. Freiburg,
    Germany, pp. 169-176.

    Smeda, N., Dakich, E., & Sharda, N. (2012). Digital Storytelling with Web 2.0 Tools for
    Collaborative Learning. In Collaborative Learning 2.0: Open Educational Resources, A.
    Okada, T. Connolly, & P. Scott (Eds.). Hershey: IGI Global, pp. 145-163.


    Smeda, N., Dakich, E., & Sharda, N. (2012).Transforming Pedagogies through Digital
    Storytelling: Framework and Methodology. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2nd
    Annual International Conference on Education & e-Learning (EeL) 2012 Bali, Indonesia,
    pp.206-211.

    Smeda, N., Dakich, E., & Sharda, N. (2013). The Effectiveness of Digital Storytelling in the
    Classrooms: A Case Study. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Advanced Learning
    Technologies (ICALT), 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Advanced Learning
    Technologies, pp. 491-492.

    Smeda, N., Dakich, E., & Sharda, N. The Effectiveness of Digital Storytelling in the
    Classrooms: A Comprehensive Study. Paper accepted at the Smart Learning Environments
    Journal.

    viii

    Table of Contents

    Abstract . iii
    Student Declaration v
    Acknowledgements vi
    List of Publications . vii
    Table of Contents . viii
    List of Figures xii
    List of Tables . xv
    Chapter 1: Thesis overview 1
    1.1 Introduction . 1
    1.2 Research design 3
    1.3 Research questions 4
    1.4 Overview of the thesis . 4
    Chapter 2: Literature Review 6
    2.1 Introduction . 6
    2.2 Technology integration . 6
    2.2.1 Benefits . 8
    2.2.2 Limitations . 9
    2.3 Storytelling 9
    2.4 Digital storytelling 11
    2.5 Types of digital stories 12
    2.5.1 Personal narrative . 12
    2.5.2 Digital stories that examine historical events 12
    2.5.3 Stories that inform or instruct 13
    2.6 Existing models of digital storytelling 13
    2.6.1 Dramatica 14
    2.6.2 Adaptive Digital Storytelling 14
    2.6.3 Storylining Suspense and Story Engine 15
    2.6.4 Hypermedia Novel 15
    2.6.5 Digital Storytelling Cookbook 15
    2.6.6 Movement Oriented Design 16
    2.7 Educational contributions to digital storytelling . 20
    2.8 Pedagogical benefits of digital storytelling . 27
    2.8.1 Personalised learning experience 27 ix

    2.8.2 Fostering collaboration . 28
    2.8.3 Building digital literacy . 30
    2.8.4 Deep learning . 31
    2.8.5 Active learning . 32
    2.8.6 Enhancing learning engagement 33
    2.9 Digital storytelling: A constructivist approach to learning . 35
    2.10 Digital storytelling and curriculum . 38
    2.11 Teachers’ reflections on digital storytelling 39
    2.12 Summary of the literature review 41
    Chapter 3: Overview of Method and Study Design 43
    3.1 Introduction . 43
    3.2 Research questions 43
    3.3 Research overview 44
    3.4 Research design 44
    3.4.1 Definition of the case study 44
    3.4.2 Advantages and limitations of the case study . 46
    3.4.3 Selection of a case study for this research . 47
    3.5 Implementation of digital storytelling in classrooms 48
    3.5.1 Teachers’ workshop . 49
    3.5.2 Students and teacher roles . 50
    3.6 Research method . 52
    3.6.1 Classroom observations . 52
    3.6.2 Evaluation rubric . 53
    3.6.3 Teacher interviews . 54
    3.7 The e-Learning Digital Storytelling (eLDiSt) framework 54
    3.7.1 Framework overview 55
    3.7.2 Framework levels . 56
    3.7.3 Digital Storytelling Aspects 56
    3.8 Participant groups . 62
    3.9 Ethics consideration 63
    3.10 Data analysis . 63
    3.11 Summary . 63
    Chapter 4: Engaging Primary School Students through Digital Storytelling . 65
    4.1 Introduction . 65
    4.2 The participants . 66
    4.2.1 Digital storytelling in ESL class 66 x

    4.2.2 Digital storytelling in library class 66
    4.3 Using digital storytelling to enhance student engagement 67
    4.3.1 Observation in ESL class . 67
    4.3.2 Observation in library class . 81
    4.4 The impact of digital storytelling on student outcomes 92
    4.4.1 Evaluation of outcomes in ESL class . 94
    4.4.2 Evaluation of outcomes in library class . 101
    4.5 Primary school teachers’ reflections on digital storytelling 109
    Chapter 5: Engaging Secondary School Students through Digital Storytelling 117
    5.1 Introduction . 117
    5.2 The participants . 117
    5.2.1 Digital storytelling in an Art class . 118
    5.2.2 Digital storytelling in Science class . 118
    5.2.3 Digital storytelling in VCAL class . 118
    5.3 Using digital storytelling to enhance student engagement 119
    5.3.1 Observation in an Art class 119
    5.3.2 Observation in Science class 130
    5.3.3 Observation in VCAL class 139
    5.4 The impact of digital storytelling on student outcomes 150
    5.4.1 Evaluation of outcomes in an Art class 150
    5.4.2 Evaluation of outcomes in Science class 158
    5.4.3 Evaluation of outcomes in VCAL class 164
    5.5 Secondary school teachers’ reflection on digital storytelling . 169
    Chapter 6: Cross-Case Analysis 177
    6.1 Introduction . 177
    6.2 Cross-case analysis of observation data 177
    6.2.1 Class collaboration 177
    6.2.2 Knowledge gain 179
    6.2.3 Student roles . 180
    6.2.4 Teacher roles 182
    6.2.5 Student engagement . 184
    6.2.6 Technology integration 186
    6.2.7 Modes of learning 187
    6.3 Cross-case analysis of rubric data . 189
    6.3.1 Overall mean level of student scores 189
    6.3.2 Overall performance based on evaluation criteria 190 xi

    6.4 Cross-case analysis of teacher interviews . 191
    6.5 Summary . 192
    Chapter 7: Results and Discussion 194
    7.1 Introduction . 194
    7.2 Using digital storytelling to enhance student engagement 195
    7.3 The impact of digital storytelling on student outcomes 208
    7.4 Summary . 213
    Chapter 8: Conclusion and Recommendations 214
    8.1 Introduction . 214
    8.2 Thesis overview 214
    8.3 Research outcomes 216
    8.4 Significance and contributions to knowledge . 220
    8.5 Limitations 221
    8.6 Recommendations for future research 222
    References 224
    Appendices . 233
    Appendix A: Classroom observation protocol 234
    Appendix B: The scoring rubric instrument . 238
    Appendix C: Teachers’ interview schedule 240
    Appendix D: Information to participants 242
    Appendix E: Consent form 246
    Appendix F: Letter of approval from EPIC . 248
    Appendix G: Parents’ consent form . 249
    Appendix H: Examples of storyboard for ESL class . 250
    Appendix I: Examples of storyboard for 3/4 class 251
    Appendix J: Examples from the students’ digital stories 253
    Appendix K: The e-Learning Digital Storytelling (eLDiSt) Framework 255



    xii

    List of Figures
    Figure 2.1 Creating Meaning and Emotional Movement (Sharda, 2005) . 17
    Figure 2.2 Story development process 18
    Figure 2.3 Movement Oriented Design (MOD) 19
    Figure 3.1 The five levels of the eLDiSt framework 55
    Figure 4.1 Class collaboration for ESL . 68
    Figure 4.2 Knowledge gain for ESL . 70
    Figure 4.3 Student roles for ESL 72
    Figure 4.4 Teacher roles for ESL 73
    Figure 4.5 Student engagement/instance for ESL . 74
    Figure 4.6 Student engagement/time for ESL . 75
    Figure 4.7 Technology integration for ESL 77
    Figure 4.8 Modes of learning for ESL 79
    Figure 4.9 Class collaboration for Years 3/4 83
    Figure 4.10 Knowledge gain for Years 3/4 . 84
    Figure 4.11 Student roles 86
    Figure 4.12 Teacher roles . 87
    Figure 4.13 Student engagement/instance for Years 3/4 88
    Figure 4.14 Student engagement/time for Years 3/4 89
    Figure 4.15 Technology integration for Years 3/4 90
    Figure 4.16 Modes of learning for Years 3/4 91
    Figure 4.17 Overall scores for digital story quality for ESL . 94
    Figure 4.18 Student scores assigned by teachers for ESL 96
    Figure 4.19 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 1 and Teacher 2 for ESL . 97
    Figure 4.20 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 1 and Teacher 3 for ESL . 98
    Figure 4.21 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 2 and Teacher 3 for ESL . 98
    Figure 4.22 Mean scores for criteria for ESL . 99
    Figure 4.23 Overall scores for digital story quality for Years 3/4 102
    Figure 4.24 Student scores assigned by teachers for Years 3/4 104
    Figure 4.25 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 1 and Teacher 2 for Years 3/4 . 105
    Figure 4.26 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 1 and Teacher 3 for Years 3/4 . 106
    Figure 4.27 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 2 and Teacher 3 for Years 3/4 . 106
    Figure 4.28 Mean scores for criteria for Years 3/4 . 107
    Figure 5.1 Class collaboration for Art class 121 xiii

    Figure 5.2 Knowledge gain for Art class 123
    Figure 5.3 Student roles for Art class . 124
    Figure 5.4 Teacher roles for Art class . 125
    Figure 5.5 Student engagement/instance for Art class 126
    Figure 5.6 Student engagement/time for Art class 127
    Figure 5.7 Technology integration for Art class . 128
    Figure 5.8 Modes of learning for Art class . 129
    Figure 5.9 Class collaboration for Science class . 132
    Figure 5.10 Knowledge gain for Science class . 133
    Figure 5.11 Student roles for Science class 134
    Figure 5.12 Teacher roles for Science class 135
    Figure 5.13 Student engagement/instance for Science class . 136
    Figure 5.14 Student engagement/time for Science class . 137
    Figure 5.15 Technology integration for Science class 138
    Figure 5.16 Modes of learning for Science class 139
    Figure 5.17 Class collaboration for VCAL class 142
    Figure 5.18 Knowledge gain for VCAL class . 143
    Figure 5.19 Student roles for VCAL class 144
    Figure 5.20 Teacher roles for VCAL class . 145
    Figure 5.21 Student engagement/instance for VCAL class 146
    Figure 5.22 Student engagement/time for VCAL class 147
    Figure 5.23 Technology integration for VCAL class 148
    Figure 5.24 Modes of learning for VCAL class 149
    Figure 5.25 Overall scores for digital story quality for Art class 151
    Figure 5.26 Student scores assigned by teachers for Art class . 153
    Figure 5.27 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 1 and Teacher 2 for Art class 154
    Figure 5.28 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 1 and Teacher 3 for Art class 154
    Figure 5.29 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 2 and Teacher 3 for Art class 155
    Figure 5.30 Mean score for criteria for Art class 156
    Figure 5.31 Overall scores for digital story quality for Science class . 158
    Figure 5.32 Student scores assigned by teacher for Science class 160
    Figure 5.33 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 1 and Teacher 2 for Science class . 160
    Figure 5.34 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 1 and Teacher 3 for Science class . 161
    Figure 5.35 Correlation between evaluations of Teacher 2 and Teacher 3 for Science class . 161
    Figure 5.36 Mean score for criteria for Science class . 162
    Figure 5.37 Overall scores for digital story quality for VCAL class 164 xiv

    Figure 5.38 Student scores assigned by teacher for VCAL class . 166
    Figure 5.39 Mean score for criteria for VCAL class 167
    Figure 6.1 Class collaboration for the five case studies 178
    Figure 6.2 Knowledge gain for the five case studies 180
    Figure 6.3 Student roles for the five case studies . 181
    Figure 6.4 Teacher roles for the five case studies . 183
    Figure 6.5 Student engagement for the five case studies 185
    Figure 6.6 Technology integration for the five case studies . 186
    Figure 6.7 Modes of learning for the five case studies . 188
    Figure 6.8 Overall scores for digital story quality for the five case studies 189
    Figure 6.9 Mean score for criteria for the five case studies 191

















    xv

    List of Tables
    Table 3.1. Relevant situation for different research methods . 47
    Table 3.2 Story Aspects (SA) and definitions . 57
    Table. 3.3 Learning Aspects (LA) and definitions 59
    Table 3.4 Digital Creation Aspects (DCA) and definitions 60
    Table 3.5 Combined Aspects (CA) and definitions 61
    Table 3.6 Case study groups . 62
    Table 4.1 Descriptive statistics of overall student scores for ESL 95
    Table 4.2 Descriptive statistics of criteria scores for ESL 100
    Table 4.3 Descriptive statistics of overall student scores for Years 3/4 . 103
    Table 4.4 Descriptive statistics of criteria scores for Years 3/4 108
    Table 5.1 Descriptive statistics of overall student scores for Art class . 152
    Table 5.2 Descriptive statistics of criteria scores for Art class . 157
    Table 5.3 Descriptive statistics of overall student scores for Science class 159
    Table 5.4 Descriptive statistics of criteria scores for Science class 163
    Table 5.5 Descriptive statistics of overall student scores for VCAL class . 165
    Table 5.6 Descriptive statistics of criteria scores for VCAL class 168




    1

    Chapter 1: Thesis overview


    1.1 Introduction
    From ancient times to the present, storytelling has served as a popular education tool, utilised
    to pass knowledge from one generation to another. Over the past few years drastic changes
    have been experienced in the processes used for creating stories, the variety of media used to
    convey the message, and the target audience.
    Storytelling, in general, is a powerful pedagogical paradigm that can be used to enhance
    learning outcomes for general, scientific and technical education (Sharda, 2007a). Stories
    have been told as a way of passing on traditions, heritage and history to future generations.
    Even today people continue to tell stories through new digital media tools. A digital story can
    be viewed as a merger between traditional storytelling and the use of multimedia technology
    (Normann, 2011).
    Technological advances, such as digital cameras, editing software and authoring tools,
    have increased the use of technology in the classroom to help students in constructing their
    own knowledge and ideas to present and share them more effectively (Standley, 2003).
    As confirmed by Armstrong (2003), computers, digital cameras, editing software, and
    other technologies are becoming more readily accessible in the classrooms, and provide
    learners and teachers with the tools to create digital stories more easily than ever before.
    Furthermore, digital storytelling helps students to develop their creativity to solve important
    problems in innovative ways (Ohler, 2008). It is an effective pedagogical tool that enhances
    learners’ motivation, and provides learners with a learning environment conducive for story
    construction through collaboration, reflection and interpersonal communication. Students can 2

    use multimedia software tools as well as other technology skills to create digital stories based
    on given educational issues.
    Digital storytelling is used as an embodiment of multimedia production for education
    purposes. Therefore, this is becoming a part of our lives, and is on the threshold of becoming
    an important part of teaching and learning as well. All of this is being facilitated by ready
    access to hardware, such as digital cameras and scanners, in conjunction with easy to use
    software. Many educational institutions have already been exploring the application of digital
    storytelling for the past few years (Robin, 2008).
    The power of storytelling as a pedagogical tool has been recognised since the beginning
    of humanity, and in more recent times, for e-Learning (Neal, 2001). Digital storytelling has
    become a modern incarnation of the traditional art of oral storytelling; it allows almost
    anyone to use off-the-shelf hardware and software to weave personal stories with the help of
    still / moving images, music, and sound, combined with the author’s creativity and
    innovation.
    Donovan, Bransford, & Pellegrino (2000) articulated why digital stories have such a
    positive impact on learners’ motivation, and state: “Learners of all ages are more motivated
    when they can see usefulness of what they are learning and use that information to do
    something that has an impact on others” (p.61). In addition, digital storytelling can provide a
    real way to help students learn how to use technology effectively in their learning,
    particularly if provided with appropriate digital resources and usable editing tools. This
    would further motivate them to create quality stories that could be presented, published and
    shared with other students in the class (Sadik, 2008).
    Therefore, this research project aimed to explore the impact of digital storytelling on
    student engagement and outcomes. It focuses on exploring the potential of digital storytelling
    as an innovative teaching and learning approach, and investigates the impact of digital 3

    storytelling on student learning. The research involved a multi-site case study of an
    Australian P-12 school. It explored the use of digital storytelling within the primary and
    secondary curriculum. In selected classrooms students and teachers had the opportunity to
    engage in innovative learning experiences based on digital storytelling.
    In addition, the literature review has revealed that digital storytelling is a powerful
    model for creating constructivist e-Learning environments. Digital storytelling has the
    potential to engage learners in integrated approaches to learning with digital media.
    Furthermore, digital storytelling enhances learners’ motivation, and helps teachers in building
    constructivist learning environments. To facilitate the harnessing of these pedagogical
    benefits we need an overarching framework for creating digital stories. This framework
    should be cognisant of the needs and capabilities of learners at their various stages of learning
    (i.e. catering for learners from primary school to university level, and even professional e-
    Learning content creators).
    This research presented a new e-Learning Digital Storytelling (eLDiSt) framework to be
    able to use digital storytelling as a pedagogical model for constructivist learning. This
    framework was developed for application at various stages of learning. The e-Learning Digital
    Storytelling (eLDiSt) framework articulates how storytelling can be used at different levels of
    education. This framework is cognisant of the Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF)
    (DEEWR, 2008), and takes into the account learning expected at the five levels specified in
    the ACSF.
    The outcomes of this research project aim to help teachers and learners tap into the
    power of digital storytelling and partake in more engaged teaching and learning.
    1.2 Research design
    This research project aims to explore the impact of digital storytelling on student engagement
    and outcomes. It focuses on exploring the potential of digital storytelling as an innovative 4

    teaching and learning approach. And further, the impact of digital storytelling on student
    learning when teachers and students use digital stories is investigated. This research involves
    a multi-site case study of an Australian P-12 school, and explores the use of digital
    storytelling within the primary and secondary curriculum. In the selected classrooms students
    and teachers had the opportunity to engage in innovative learning experiences based on
    digital storytelling. In order to enhance the reliability and validity of the research, multiple
    methods of data collection and analysis have been used. Data are collected with qualitative
    and quantitative methods. A rubric was used to collect quantitative data, while interviews and
    observation have been used to collect qualitative data. Data collection and analysis of the
    feedback provided by teachers was based on mixed methods research to evaluate if and how
    digital storytelling enhances teaching and learning outcomes.
    1.3 Research questions
    The rationale for the project is to explore the pedagogical benefits of digital storytelling.
    Therefore, the overall research question is: How can digital storytelling enhance the student
    engagement and provide better educational outcomes for learners? This question can be
    divided into the following sub-questions:
     How can digital storytelling be used to enhance student engagement?
     How can digital storytelling be used to improve educational outcomes?
     What are teacher perceptions about student learning through digital storytelling?
    1.4 Overview of the thesis
    Chapter one gives an overview of the thesis, the aims of the research and its contribution to
    knowledge. It also sheds some light on the research methodologies used in the research.
    Chapter two reviews the current literature and research in the field of digital storytelling.
    The literature review is carried out in order to analyse the topic and understand the viewpoints
    of researchers in the field. Chapter three gives a full picture of research methods and design tools required for this
    research. This chapter explains details pertaining to the design and implementation of
    methodology to investigate relevant research questions. Also, it presents the instruments
    utilised in this research, details of participant groups, data collection and the analysis
    approach.
    Chapter four consists of the findings of primary school cases (ESL and Year 3/4),
    chapter five presents the findings of secondary school cases (Years 7, 9 and 11), while chapter
    six includes the cross-case analysis for the five case studies.
    Chapter seven synthesises and analyses the study findings with the literature from
    chapter two. Finally, the most significant findings during this research are addressed in chapter
    eight, followed by the conclusions and implications, as well as recommendations for future
    research.

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