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    THẠC SĨ Plunging motions of an elastically suspended wing with an oscillating flap- An experimental and numerical assessment

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  6. Plunging motions of an elastically suspended wing with an oscillating flap- An experimental and numerical assessment

    Contents
    Summary iii
    Samenvatting v
    Contents xii
    1 Introduction 1
    1.1 Motivation . 1
    1.2 Literature review of present state . 2
    1.3 Approach 7
    1.4 Outline . 8
    2 Terminology, wind tunnel models and methodologies 9
    2.1 Terminology . 9
    2.1.1 Characteristic (non-)dimensional numbers 9
    2.1.2 Flap phase angle 10
    2.1.3 Averaging methods . 10
    2.1.4 Data reduction . 11
    2.2 Wind tunnel model . 11
    2.2.1 Model description . 11
    2.2.2 Wing model derived with co-kriging . 12
    2.3 Standard wind tunnel corrections for steady flow 13
    2.3.1 Steady corrections closed wind tunnels 13
    2.3.2 Steady corrections for open jet wind tunnels . 14
    2.4 Wind tunnel measurements and FSI . 15
    2.5 Particle Image Velocimetry 16
    2.5.1 Principles of PIV 16
    2.5.2 Phase-locked PIV 17
    2.6 Methods to derive (un)steady forces . 17
    2.6.1 Kutta-Joukowski’s circulatory approach . 17
    2.6.2 Noca’s momentum flux equation . 18
    2.6.3 Implementation of Noca’s method 20
    ix2.7 Uncertainty analysis 24
    3 Experimental benchmark I and numerical comparison: an aerofoil
    with actuated flap 25
    3.1 Problem definition . 26
    3.1.1 Low turbulence tunnel . 26
    3.1.2 The model and equipment . 27
    3.1.3 Steady and unsteady test cases 28
    3.1.4 PIV setup and apparatus . 29
    3.2 Numerical model 31
    3.2.1 2-D panel code . 32
    3.3 Wind tunnel corrections 32
    3.3.1 Wind tunnel wall corrections . 33
    3.3.2 Gap correction . 37
    3.4 Results 38
    3.4.1 Force evaluation 38
    3.4.2 Steady cases 38
    3.4.3 Unsteady cases . 40
    3.5 Conclusions . 45
    4 Experimental benchmark II: a free plunging wing with imposed flap
    oscillations 47
    4.1 Problem definition . 48
    4.1.1 Open jet wind tunnel . 48
    4.1.2 Wind tunnel model . 49
    4.1.3 Supporting structure 49
    4.1.4 Structural characteristics . 50
    4.1.5 Steady and unsteady test cases 52
    4.2 Measurements and post-processing 54
    4.2.1 Measurement devices 54
    4.2.2 Force derivation 55
    4.2.3 Measurement procedure and post-processing 57
    4.2.4 Uncertainty analysis 58
    4.2.5 PIV setup and apparatus . 59
    4.2.6 Wind tunnel corrections 61
    4.3 Results 61
    4.3.1 Steady cases 61
    4.3.2 Unsteady case: 2-D PIV 67
    4.3.3 Unsteady cases . 70
    4.4 Conclusions . 80
    5 Comparative study of numerical models for a free plunging aerofoil
    with imposed flap oscillations 83
    5.1 Problem definition . 83
    5.1.1 Test problem simplification 83
    5.1.2 Wind tunnel corrections 84
    5.2 Numerical methods . 88
    x5.2.1 2-D Extended Theodorsens model 88
    5.2.2 2-D panel code with structural model 89
    5.2.3 2-D Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver with struc-
    tural model . 90
    5.2.4 Post-processing . 92
    5.3 Results 92
    5.3.1 Steady cases 93
    5.3.2 Unsteady cases - description 98
    5.3.3 Unsteady cases - subiterations 98
    5.3.4 Unsteady cases - PIV test case 100
    5.3.5 Unsteady cases - sensor test cases . 102
    5.4 Conclusions . 112
    6 Conclusions 115
    7 Recommendations 119
    A Wind tunnel corrections LTT wind tunnel 121
    B Error classification 123
    B.1 Experimental errors 123
    B.1.1 Systematic errors 123
    B.1.2 Random errors . 124
    B.2 Numerical errors 124
    C Data interpolation 125
    C.1 Bayesian inference . 125
    C.2 Kriging . 126
    C.3 Co-kriging 127
    D Wing/Aerofoil measurements 131
    E Flap motion algorithm 135
    F Theodorsens model 137
    G Tabulated numerical and experimental results 139
    H Wind tunnel measurements DU96-W-180 147
    H.1 Steady measurement data original DU96-W-180 . 147
    H.2 Steady measurement data current model . 148
    H.3 Combined graphs DU96-W-180 and current
    wind tunnel model . 150
    I Tabulated results grid and time step study (U)RANS solver 153
    References 155
    List of publications 165
    xiAcknowledgements 167
    Curriculum Vitae 169

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