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    THẠC SĨ The Women's Movement in Indonesia's Pesantren: Negotiating Islam, Culture, and Modernity

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  6. The Women's Movement in Indonesia's Pesantren: Negotiating Islam, Culture, and Modernity

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    ABSTRACT
    KHARIROH, KHARIROH, M.A., June 2010, Southeast Asian Studies
    The Women's Movement in Indonesia's Pesantren: Negotiating Islam, Culture, and
    Modernity (165 pp.)
    Director of Thesis: Loren D. Lybarger
    This thesis explores the women’s movement in Indonesia’s pesantren and
    their contributions to develop gender equality in the traditionalist Muslim communities,
    particularly in Java, after the downfall of the Suharto regime 1998. By looking at two
    pesantren as instructive case studies, it provides the historical and sociological context of
    the women’s movement in pesantren and the issues for which they are striving, such as
    women’s advocacy against domestic violence, women’s leadership, and reinterpretation
    of religious texts. This study also examines the internal and external factors influencing
    the movement to provide deeper understanding about women in pesantren, and how they
    negotiate gender roles in the light of Islamic tradition, local culture and a modern context.
    This thesis argues that the women’s movement in pesantren constitutes an
    independent development that explicitly breaks with the secular premise that grounds
    their ideologies. Secular feminism gains resistance within pesantren circles. The rise of
    Islamic feminist criticism among pesantren women, by contrast, directly challenges the
    patriarchal structure of these communities on religious grounds.
    Approved: __________________________________________________ ___________
    Loren D. Lybarger
    Assistant Professor of Classics and World Religions 4

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    This thesis could not have been possible without the assistance, patience,
    motivation, encouragement and kindness of my professors, colleagues, friends and
    family. The list of those to whom I have become indebted in the process of the writing of
    this thesis is too long to be presented in full here. I am grateful to all of them, first and
    foremost to my family. My mother and my father have supported me in many ways since
    the beginning of my studies, and they deserve so much more than I could ever possibly
    repay. My husband, Ali Sobirin, and our children Saka and Sophia, that my utmost
    appreciation is due. Their love, patience, and understanding have made my intellectual
    journeys possible. Without their present during my study at Ohio University, my life
    would be miserable.
    This work, I must admit, was only possible because of the encouragement of my
    committee members: Dr. Loren D. Lybarger, Professor Elizabeth Fuller Collins, Dr. Ann
    Tickamyer, who have exerted extraordinary amounts of time and energy in teaching me
    and supporting my research. They not only supervised the writing of the thesis from the
    beginning, but also inspired my approach to the subject. I am particularly grateful for the
    benefits gained through the discussions with other professors at Ohio University,
    particularly Dr. Gene Ammarell, Dr. Risa Whitson, Dr. Haley Duschinski, Dr. William
    Frederick, Dr. Harry Aveling, and Dr. Patricia Stokes. From them, I learned that seeking
    knowledge and wisdom is a never-ending process. Special mention should be made to
    librarians in the Southeast Asian collection of Alden library, especially Lusi, Jeff Shane,
    and Keng We Koh, who helped me a lot to find the references for my work. 5

    I have also been extremely fortunate in having had a number of friends and
    colleagues that deserve my acknowledgement. I need to mention some of them here:
    Fahrina So, Eric Viani, Cesar Dequintas, Alexander Supartono, Huong Nguyen, Kurara
    Nakano, Yuki Nakama, Widya Lystiowulan, Faishol Adib, Tolhas Damanik, Siti Aishah,
    Dyah Arin, Adila Prasojo, Anthony Medrano, Phirom Leng, Nurcahyati Karsono, Pittaya
    Paladroi, Ashley Arzy, Sinoun, Bethany, Preston Silvey, Molly Ruth, Kate, Ben,
    Elizabeth, Heyam, Marina, Abbey, and Jenny as well as my Indonesian fellow PERMIAS
    members whose names could not be mentioned here, also deserve my sincere thanks.
    I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my participants who became key
    sources of information for this thesis. They are Kyai Husein Muhammad, Faqihuddin
    Abdul Kodir, Nyai Lilik Nihayah, Masruchah, Nur Rofi’ah, Aan Anshoriyah, Nyai
    Ruqayyah, Najlah Naqiyah, Teh Enung, and Nyai Djuju’ Juwariyah. Without their
    generous information, I could not write this thesis.
    Lastly, my study at Ohio University would not been possible without the
    scholarship from Ford Foundation with its International Fellowship Program (IFP). I
    would like to thank IIE New York and IIEF Jakarta for their kind assistance and
    hospitality.




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    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Page



    ABSTRACT 3
    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 4
    ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 8
    GLOSSARY 10

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 14
    A. Research Questions 22
    B. Methods 25
    C. Historical Background and Theoretical Framework .27
    1. The Muslim Women's Movement: A Brief Survey .27
    2. Literature Review 33
    CHAPTER 2: WOMEN AND PESANTREN: THE DIALOGUE OF
    MODERNIZATION AND TRADITION . 39
    A. The Role of Pesantren in Indonesia 39
    B. Pesantren and Modernization 47
    C. The Status Of Women in Pesantren 52
    D. Women in the Classical Islamic Texts (Kitab Kuning) 56
    CHAPTER 3: THE INVOLVEMENT OF PESANTREN IN DEVELOPING WOMEN'S
    RIGHTS (TWO CASE STUDIES) . 64
    A. The Role of Governmental Organizations (NGOs) 64 7

    B. The First Case Study: Pesantren Dar al Tauhid, Cirebon . 71
    C. The Second Case Study: Pesantren Cipasung, Tasikmalaya 79
    D. Evaluation and Analysis 86
    1. Pesantren-Based Women’s Rights Advocacy . 87
    2. Women’s ‘Ulama and Interpretation of Islamic 91
    3. Women’s Leadership 99

    CHAPTER 4: ISLAMIC FEMINISM IN PESANTREN: THE INTERSECTIONS OF
    ISLAM, CULTURE AND MODERNITY . 109
    A. Discussing Islamic Feminism: A Brief Survey 109
    B. Indonesian Muslim Women, International Feminism and Democratization .117
    C. The Women’s Movement in Pesantren and Islamic Feminism .123
    D. The Challenges of the Women’s Movement in Pesantren 131
    1. Religious Legitimacy .131
    2. Polygamy 134
    3. Capital Resources 138
    CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 141
    REFERENCES 151
    APPENDIX A: SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW .161
    APPENDIX B: INFORMANT BACKGROUNDS 163


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    ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

    CEDAW : Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
    Against Women
    FK3 : Forum Kajian Kitab Kuning (the Forum to Discuss Islamic
    Classical Texts)
    IAIN : Institute Agama Islam Negeri (The Islamic State Institute of
    Higher Learning)
    ICIP : International Center for Islam and Pluralism
    IPPNU : Ikatan Pelajar Putri Nahdhatul Ulama (The Female Student Union
    of Nahdhatul Ulama)
    ISIS : Institute for Social and Institutional Studies
    KOMNAS Perempuan: Komisi Nasional Perempuan (the National Commission on
    Violence against Women)
    KUII : Konferensi Umat Islam Indonesia (the Congress of the
    Indonesian Muslim Community)
    LAKPESDAM NU : Lembaga Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia
    NU (Nahdlatul Ulama Institute for Human Resource Study and
    Development)
    LKiS : Lembaga Kajian Islam dan Social (Institute for Islamic and Social
    Studies)

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