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    TIẾN SĨ Các thủ pháp nghệ thuật và các biện pháp tu từ trong các bài diễn văn của một số nhà lãnh đạo trên thế giới

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  6. Các thủ pháp nghệ thuật và các biện pháp tu từ trong các bài diễn văn của một số nhà lãnh đạo trên thế giới

    ABSTRACT
    Title: Literary and Rhetorical Devices Used in Speeches of
    Selected World Leaders
    Author: MA. Nguyen Thi Hong Minh
    Degree: Doctor of Philosophy
    Major: English Language and Literature
    Year: 2015
    Adviser: Dr. Luisa A. Valdez
    Summary
    This study is an analysis of literary and rhetorical devices used in
    speeches of selected world leaders and the implication of their
    ideologies to the thinking of young people and their appreciation of
    literature.
    Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions:
    1. What are the ideologies reflected in the speeches of Ho Chi
    Minh, Margaret Thatcher and Barack Obama?
    2. How are the themes of existence, patriotism, humanism, inner
    peace and moral principle manifested in the selected speeches?
    3. What devices were used in the speeches of world leaders with
    reference to rhetorical devices and literary techniques?
    4. What are the implications of their ideologies to the thinking of
    the young people and their appreciation of literature? 4

    This study employed the qualitative method of research in
    analyzing Ho Chi Minh, Margaret Thatcher and Barack Obama‘s
    ideologies in the representative speeches chosen. Likewise, this
    analysis made use of the sociological and philosophical approaches as
    the bases for analysis. This paper also involved content analysis, which
    is a systematic technique in analyzing message content and message
    handling.
    The following representative literary works were analyzed: Ho Chi
    Minh‘s Selected Articles and Speeches, Margaret Thatcher‘s Collected
    Speeches and Barack Obama in his Own Words. These selected
    speeches constituted the primary and twining sources of the study.
    Findings
    The results of analysis and interpretation revealed that:
    1. Ho Chi Minh, Margaret Thatcher, Barack Obama have paid
    special attention to the question of human beings; everything for human
    beings and everything by human beings. This attitude is reflected in
    their love, respect and confidence in human beings, and their efforts to
    nurture and develop the skills and talents of all. They themselves have
    set an excellent example of morality, and they have instructed to
    different groups of people the practices of social ethics. The patriotism,
    an important aspect of their ideologies, is deeply shown in their
    ideologies. 5

    2. The common themes in the selected world leaders‘ speeches
    are existence, patriotism, humanism, inner peace and moral principles.
    These themes are fully utilized to demonstrate their ideologies. Through
    the spoken words in front of the public, Ho Chi Minh, Margaret
    Thatcher, and Barack Obama confirm the existence of their ideologies;
    they show their deep patriotism; they highly appreciate humanism; they
    rely on inner peace, and they urge their people to follow set moral
    principles.
    3. The selected world leaders have carefully selected different
    literary devices to serve their purpose of writing appropriately. Among
    the literary tools, the common techniques that Ho Chi Minh, Margaret
    Thatcher and Barack Obama employed in their speeches are ethos,
    logos, and pathos, and figurative language, symbolism and flashback.
    These literary tools have shown their effect in emphasizing their
    ideologies and the themes in their speeches.
    4. Ho Chi Minh‘s ideology has proved its great values in the
    education and training of Vietnamese young generations. His thoughts
    has served as the lightning torch leading the youth towards the defense
    of the country and the building of socialism in the present context of
    Vietnam.
    Reading Ho Chi Minh‘s works reflecting his thoughts on different
    aspects of Vietnamese life, the youth have opportunity to develop their
    appreciation of literature in general and Ho Chi Minh‘s writings in 6

    particular. They are also guided toward positive thinking, good virtues
    and practical actions for the contribution to the building and defense of
    the country.
    Conclusions
    1. The selected world leaders show their own ideologies in their
    speeches. The selected world leaders all wish to build a peaceful and
    prosperous country for their nation and expect to achieve happiness for
    their people. As the country leader, they also establish norms and
    principles so that their people will pursuit their desires.
    2. The selected world leaders share some common themes in
    their speeches. They confirm their existence, show their patriotism and
    humanism towards their countrymen and human beings. The selected
    speeches reveal the world leaders‘ inner peace and moral principles
    which they have established to educate their people.
    3. The thesis also shows that the selected world leaders have
    employed all kinds of rhetorical devices including ethos, logos, and
    pathos in order to persuade audience. They have also utilized a number
    of literary techniques such as figurative language, symbolism and
    flashback in their speeches in order to access the public.
    Recommendations
    1. The academic managers may use this research as a frame of
    reference when they prepare developmental priorities, programs,
    projects and policies in the educational institutions. 7

    2. The working professionals employ this study in the mainstream
    of their disciplines, their lives and the world and when they apply Ho Chi
    Minh‘s ideology into the workplace initiatives.
    3. College instructors of literature may use this analysis as one of
    their methodologies in teaching literature specifically the appropriate
    materials, media, and literary theories and approaches in literary
    analysis in their literature classes and to develop their students‘
    appreciation and sense of value in order to guide and allow them to
    crystallize and synthesize what philosophy of life is best to learn and to
    live by.
    5. Students of literature realize the significance of the literary
    devices in literary works and may be inspired to treat literature as a
    work of art distinguished from other texts through content and form, and
    intensify their appreciation of literary works as well as inspire them to
    engage in literary analysis as an academic activity.
    6. The members of the community may realize, through this
    paper, that the Ho Chi Minh‘s ideology is the basic foundation for the
    struggle of national independence, the building of socialism and the
    cultivation of revolutionary ethics in present Vietnam.
    7. That future researchers conduct other literary works in the
    veins of the recent research for academic enhancement to have a cross
    dissections of views of life and to substantiate the present study.
    8

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