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    TIẾN SĨ Sách bài tập về các tiểu kỹ năng ngôn ngữ tiếng Anh dành cho sinh viên năm thứ nhất ở một số trường Đại học tại tỉnh Thái Nguyên, Việt Nam

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  6. Sách bài tập về các tiểu kỹ năng ngôn ngữ tiếng Anh dành cho sinh viên năm thứ nhất ở một số trường Đại học tại tỉnh Thái Nguyên, Việt Nam

    ii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Page
    TITLE PAGE I
    TABLE OF CONTENTS . Vi
    LIST OF TABLES . Ix
    LIST OF FIGURES Xi
    CHAPTER
    I. THE PROBLEM
    Introduction 1
    Statement of the Problem 7
    Scope, Delimitation and Limitation . 8
    Significance of the Study 9
    II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
    Conceptual Literature . 11
    Research Literature . 40
    Synthesis 48
    Theoretical Framework 51
    Conceptual Framework 53
    Hypothesis 54
    Definition of Terms 56



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    iii
    III. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE
    Research Environment . 58
    Research Design . 60
    Subject of the Study . 60
    Data Gathering Instrument . 62
    Data Gathering Procedure . 65
    Statistical Treatment of Data . 66
    IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
    INTERPRETATION OF
    DATA .

    67
    V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
    RECOMMENDATION

    Summary of Findings . 131
    Conclusions 140
    Recommendations 141
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    142
    APPENDICES
    Questionnaires

    150
    Request Letters 157
    Documentations 170
    CURRICULUM VITAE



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    iv

    LIST OF TABLES
    Table Page
    1 Distribution of student respondents . 61

    2 Level of proficiency of students in the modality of Reading 69
    3 Level of proficiency of students in the modality of Writing

    70
    4 Level of proficiency of students in the modality of Speaking

    72
    5 Level of proficiency of students in the modality of Listening 75
    6 English language micro-skills of students Utilized in the
    Basic English course


    78
    6 English language micro-skills of students Utilized in the
    Basic English course


    79
    7 English language micro-skills of students as to frequency
    of use .


    80
    7 English language micro-skills of students as to frequency
    of use .


    81
    8 English language micro-skills of students as to degree
    of importance


    83
    8 English language micro-skills of students as to degree
    of importance


    84
    9 Comparison of the student’s language performance and
    teacher’s assessment of student’s language micro-skills
    performance .


    87



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    v







    10 Difficulty of the student respondents in the four modes
    of language

    89

    11 English language micro-skills of students performance
    and their frequency of use .

    92

    11 English language micro-skills of students performance
    and their frequency of use .

    93
    12 English language micro-skills of students and their
    frequency of use according to the
    respondents .


    93

    13 Parameters used as basis in the design of workbook on
    Micro-skills of the four modes of language .

    97




    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    vi
    LIST OF FIGURES
    Figure Page
    1. Research Paradigm 55





    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    1
    CHAPTER 1
    THE PROBLEM
    Introduction
    Language is a very important tool of communication that an
    individual must possess. In every aspect and interaction in life,
    language cannot be absent. Language is used to inform the people
    around as to what ones think, feel and desire as well as question and
    understand the world around. Language is expressed by words,
    gestures, tone, and voice in varied situations in communication.
    Through the use of language, thoughts and experiences can make
    sense and people can also be connected. Thus, there should be a
    warm and comfortable environment where one could learn the
    complexities of language. It is realized that if a person possesses strong
    language skills, this will serve as an asset that will promote a lifetime or
    effective communication. Language can also help people learn other
    culture.
    As one of the main ways to communicate with other people either
    in writing or on the phone, through chatting on the internet or in person,
    people are able to connect, share ideas to others and be heard and
    understood by others or it can open to new world. No matter distant we
    are, language helps connect people together and make us closer to one


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    2
    another. Language is the most effective tool for people to express our
    thoughts and our feelings.
    Since the 21
    st
    century, English language has become one of the
    great global languages. There is a need to really learn this language as
    it may not only benefit the economy but also have cultural and quality of
    life benefit as well. In this multilingual and multi cultural world, the ability
    to speak the language is so significant most especially the oral
    language because of its important role in the development of literacy
    skills. The ability of coming up with vocabulary is through talking and the
    process of producing complex sentence is through speaking aside from
    our skills in recounting, narrating and persuading. In the oral domain,
    questions that involve lower order and higher order thing are taken first
    all before the application of reading comprehension. In reading and
    writing, all these skills are of vital importance to make meaning of the
    words read and in forming sentences and putting them together needs
    the proficiency of a person.
    In school projects like themes, books, writings and others, one
    can provide the reading experience to learners that will strengthen their
    oral language skills with cohesion and meaning. In teaching the
    concept of reading, sub skills is very important as it serves as basis for
    their planning of syllabi, course materials and description of student’s
    competencies of the language. For teachers to be effective in


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    3
    performing their tasks of helping the students’ develop skills, first, they
    are required to conduct a need analysis on their students to identify
    their micro skills and construct language tests afterwards.
    As regard to vocabulary skills, often students fail in the use of
    context to form lexical inference and this is due to misidentification and
    many identification errors resulting from insufficient knowledge from
    orthographic processing. It is stated that words comprehension in
    reading has strong relation to that of students’ knowledge aside from
    the importance of structural knowledge where students’ should have
    long exposure to print words for them to develop automaticity in using
    information form grammatical structures to facilitate reading. Teachers
    on the other hand must provide students with more opportunities to
    encounter English passages to enhance their automaticity in reading.
    Relative to the background knowledge of readers as to text
    structure, it has also some effects to students reading in a second
    foreign language. So that teachers in order to make their students
    aware of discourse structure, must engage in explicit teaching of
    discourse markers and several basic discourse structures since this is
    very useful in skimming, planning and careful reading. Students must
    also be exposed to a wide variety of text genres for them to read texts
    correctly. In reading, it is stated that enjoyment is the key to success
    and so in teaching, teachers must provide students with content area


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    4
    reading materials which students find interesting and would increase
    students’ motivation for improving their reading skill. Reading ability
    can be developed with the association of other skills, since it is one of
    the components of the overall English proficiency. Therefore, language
    teachers should provide students with reading activities related to
    listening, speaking and writing activities if reading ability is improved
    through activities related to other skills.
    In connection with writing, it is an essential skill that can benefit
    students like introducing and practicing writing with engaging activities
    that can foster confidence and lifelong love for writing as it is important
    for students’ continued learning, communication and self-expression. In
    academic areas, writing exercises can develop students critical and
    problem solving skills. Students learning the process of writing can
    translate it into other parts of learning and it is very important to
    vocabulary and reading development.
    Writing is great tool in helping students know about what others
    are thinking and can solidify ideas and thoughts and allow for a
    reflection of ideas revolving around the mind. It assist learners with
    other language tools like learning how to form language, spell, put
    together words in logical aspect and make persuasion in writing. Varied
    writing problems are encountered by students learning the second
    language. These problems include grammar-related writing problems,


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    5
    stylistic writing problems, word use writing problem, punctuation
    problems and social networking writing problems. Teachers and parents
    must work hand in hand in trying to understand the learner’s strengths
    and weaknesses to ensure success of the program. One way of
    monitoring learner’s program is through collecting a portfolio of learners
    work over time. Identifying early problem may help teachers develop
    effecting teaching strategies to help endorse writing problems.
    Speaking problems are those learning difficulties experienced by
    students in the course of speaking. These include inhibition of students
    to speak because of wordiness about committing mistakes and being
    shy to face the audience. Another is when students have nothing to say
    in a situation because they cannot think of anything to say and they lack
    the confidence to express themselves. In the case of a large group,
    problems arise when there is little time allocated for students to speak
    and where only one student has the opportunity to be heard. Further,
    there are classes who are dominated by some learners who speak well
    the language in class while others do not speak at all and the problem
    on the use of the mother tongue where students tend to speak on their
    native language rather than using the second language. There is also
    this problem where students seem not discipline in the use of the target
    language.


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    6
    Language teachers in this situation must try to motivate students
    to use the target language often, and create a small group where each
    student can engage in conversation and check other’s errors. This can
    also give them opportunity to have learning of new vocabulary and
    make use of videos, music or authentic conversation in English as an
    exposure for student in speaking English.
    Listening on the other hand plays also a vital role in
    communication and students listen for varied purposes like
    entertainment, academic purposes and obtaining information. Listening
    is important because it provides language input. Without listening, no
    communication can be achieved. Those students who are non-native
    speaker or are learning second language find it difficult to acquire good
    listening skill. If students fail to listen, this leads to poor result such as
    poor comprehension. Students’ problems in listening were accompanied
    by four following factors: the message, the speaker, the listener and the
    physical setting. Other identified problems in listening include speech
    rate, vocabulary and pronunciation. To help students get improve their
    listening skill, language teachers must identify first their listening
    problems and the cause of such difficulties in order to address the
    students’ concern.
    From the researcher’s experience of 17 years teaching at Thai
    Nguyen University of Education, it proved that the students’ English


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    7
    language proficiency does not meet the requirement. The first reason
    that causes it is the students were mainly taught with knowledge such
    as grammatical structures and vocabulary, but not skills. The
    imbalanced teaching, thus, made their English skills incompetent.
    With this scenario, as College English language teacher
    handling Basic English courses, the researcher is interested to know
    and identify the First year college students’ micro skill needs with the
    end view of proposing a workbook to enhance first year college
    students’ micro skill needs.

    Statement of the Problem:

    This study determined the English language micro skill needs of
    students among selected universities of Thai Nguyen.
    Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions.
    1. What is the level of English language proficiency among students
    in the four modes of language performance?
    1.1 reading
    1.2 writing
    1.3 speaking and
    1.4 listening?
    2. How do faculty respondents assess the students’ English
    language micro-skills performance relative to


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    8
    2.1 Motor-perceptual skills
    2.2 Intonation skills
    2.3 Deductive skills
    2.4 Perceptual or communicative skills
    2.5 Conceptual skills
    2.6 Intrasentencial structure and semantic relations skills
    2.7 Discourse coherence skills, and
    2.8 Information transfer skills
    3. Is there a significant difference between students’ language
    performance in the teacher-made test and teacher’s assessment
    of students’ language micro skills performance as assessed by
    the faculty?
    4. In which among the four modes of language do student
    respondents find difficulties?
    5. What is the faculty assessment of students’ language micro-skills
    performance relating to
    5.1 frequency of use
    5.2 degree of importance?
    6. What supplementary workbook may be proposed to enhance
    micro skill needs of students in Basic English course?


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    9
    Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study
    The study deals with the assessment of the English language
    micro skill needs of Thai Nguyen University students. It covered the
    level of English language proficiency among students in the four modes
    of language performance in reading, writing, speaking and listening.
    Students’ English micro skills in terms of motor-perceptual skills for
    spoken and written media, intonation skills concerned with
    understanding and conveying meaning especially attitudinal meaning,
    deductive skills in terms of deducing meaning or use of unfamiliar
    lexical items such as reducing recourse to use of dictionary, perceptual
    or communicative skills, conceptual skills in reference to understanding
    and expressing conceptual meaning, intrasentencial structure and
    semantic relations skills, discourse coherence skills and information
    transfer skills were also covered in the study.
    Difficulties encountered by first year college students in the four
    modes of language were also included. With all these knowledge, the
    researcher will come up with a proposed instructional material to
    enhance the students micro skill needs. The subjects of the study were
    limited to three hundred eighty (380) freshman students during the
    Academic Year 2013-2014 in the four (4) Thai Nguyen Universities in
    Thai Nguyen Province. Other students in higher level in the four
    universities mentioned are not included in the study as well as those
    who are not English teachers.


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    10
    Significance of the Study
    The study is deemed beneficial to the Administrators of Thai
    Nguyen University, English teachers, First Year students, Parents and
    Future researchers.
    Administrators of Thai Nguyen. This study can guide them in
    improving their English curriculum by evaluating the different English
    proficiency enhancing activities. This study will serve as a guide for the
    enhancement of the existing Basic English curriculum to meet their
    institutional goals and objectives.
    Faculty of Basic English. This study will serve as a tool for the
    faculty teaching Basic English as they may become aware of the
    present level of English language proficiency of students in the four
    modes of language. This will provide them insights on what innovative
    learning activities will be appropriate to enhance the language
    proficiency of their students.
    First Year Students. The findings of this study will make them
    aware of their level of English language proficiency in the four modes of
    language and their English language micro skills. This will be an
    instrument for them to improve their weak points and enhance their
    levels of performance in Basic English.


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    11
    Parents. Results of the study will help them become aware of
    the English performance of their children which will make them more
    supportive and cooperative in school activities especially for the
    improvement of Basic English skills of their children.
    Future researchers. This study will serve as reference for their
    undertaking.

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