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    TIẾN SĨ Thực trạng và giải pháp về năng lực, phương pháp giảng dạy của giảng viên tiếng Anh và hiệu quả tiếp thu của sinh viên năm thứ nhất tại Đại học Thái Nguyên

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  6. Thực trạng và giải pháp về năng lực, phương pháp giảng dạy của giảng viên tiếng Anh và hiệu quả tiếp thu của sinh viên năm thứ nhất tại Đại học Thái Nguyên

    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Page
    TABLE OF CONTENTS . i
    LIST OF TABLES iii
    LIST OF FIGURES v
    CHAPTER
    I. THE PROBLEM 1
    Introduction 1
    Scope, limitation and delimitation of the study . 10
    Significance of the study 11
    II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES . 13
    Conceptual literature 13
    English language Instruction 13
    English Language Instruction 35
    Related Studies 75
    Theoretical Framework 102
    Conceptual Framework 107
    Hypothesis of the study . 109
    Definition of Terms . 109



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    ii
    III. METHODOLOGY 111
    Research Design . 111
    Subject of the study . 112
    Data gathering instrument . 113
    Data gathering procedure 113
    Statistical treatment of data . 114
    IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 115
    V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 160
    Summary 160
    Findings . 162
    Conclusions . 167
    Recommendations . 169
    BIBLIOGRAPHY . 170
    APPENDIX 176
    CURRICULUM VITAE 191





    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    iii
    LIST OF TABLES

    Table Title Page
    1.Distribution of samples by Colleges 112
    2.1. Competencies of English Faculty of TNU in terms of Subject Matter
    Expertise . 119
    2.2. Competencies of English Faculty of TNU in terms of Classroom
    Management Expertise 123
    2.3. Competencies of English Faculty of TNU in terms of Instructional
    Expertise 127
    2.4. Competencies of English Faculty of TNU in terms of
    Communication Expertise 130
    2.5 Competencies of English Faculty of TNU in terms of Diagnostic Expertise 133
    2.6. Competencies of English Faculty of TNU in terms of Relational Expertise 137
    3. Difference of Responses on Teachers’ Performance and Level of
    Competence . 140
    4. Students’ Level of Performance in Basic English 143



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    iv
    5. Attitudes towards English Language 144
    6. Relationship Between Attitude of Students and 150
    7. Level of Performance in English 150
    8. Instructional Plan to Facilitate Teaching and Learning . 152




    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    v
    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure Title Page
    1. Conceptual Paradigm of the study 108





    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    1
    CHAPTER I
    THE PROBLEM

    Introduction
    Quality education is first and foremost a function of instruction,
    because in the hands of uncommitted and ineffective teachers, the best-
    designed curriculum is doomed to fail. While it is true that some students
    can learn in spite of the teacher, it cannot be denied that the quality of the
    outputs of education is a function, to a great extent, of instruction and
    students’ interaction with the teachers.
    Teachers who are masters of their craft and are genuinely
    concerned with the total growth of their students can leave an indelible
    imprint in the hearts and minds of the learners that can withstand the
    passage of time. Teaching expertise is ordinarily attained by only a small
    percentage of those who are competent in teaching (Berliner, 1992 in
    Reyes, 2002).
    Nothing is more central to student learning than the quality of the
    teacher. He is the most important education factor influencing student
    outcomes and his far reaching influence as agent of constructive change in




    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    2
    society cannot be questioned. His influence on student achievement is
    inarguable. These observations stem from the findings of previous
    researchers who posited that the quality of the teacher could account for a
    significant amount of variance in student achievement (Hua:2010;
    Goldhaber:2002; Frost Leo in Hua:2010).
    Teacher competencies which deal with what the teacher does while
    teaching include behaviors related to student achievement which were
    referred to in a separate publication as key and catalytic behaviors.
    Subsequent analysis showed two behaviors consistently related with
    student achievement namely task orientation or direct instruction, and
    opportunity to learn oftentimes referred to as academic time, engaged time
    or content covered.
    It was also found that to increase student achievement scores, a
    teacher should use strong classroom management, possess high
    expectations for students, and maintain an optimal level of learning
    difficulty. Teachers who were accepting, attentive, aware of developmental
    needs, consistent in controlling classes, democratic, encouraging, tolerant
    of race and class, flexible, and optimistic were also found to be successful.
    There were other models developed both by foreign and local researchers



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    3
    who identified teacher behaviors that correlate strongly with student
    outcomes.
    It is evident that teachers have the greatest potential to influence
    students’ education, and that student achievement is related to teacher
    competence in teaching. There is sufficient evidence that shows that
    students achieve more when teachers employ systematic teaching
    procedures and systematic feedback on students’ performance and that
    achievement is higher in classrooms where the climate is warm and
    democratic, neither harsh nor overly lavish with praise and that teachers
    who adjust the difficulty level of material to student ability have higher rates
    of achievement in their classes (Kemp & Hall, 1992 in Goldhaber, 2003).
    These studies confirm that teachers have a greater impact on students
    than any other schooling factor and that there is no substitute for a highly
    skilled teacher.
    No one can deny the fact that the role of the teacher is crucial in
    establishing a culture of learning. There have been so many factors
    considered in making a teacher effective and efficient in this complex
    endeavor. One of the most important and complex issue in education is on
    teacher evaluation and professional growth since no answer yet has been



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    4
    given as to the best ways to meet the growth needs of the teachers. It is
    also a sad fact that many intellectual, emotional, spiritual and physical
    demands are placed on teachers as they seek appropriate resources,
    teaching methods, and assessment techniques to make learning
    meaningful for each student. For most teachers, the job becomes
    emotionally draining especially if done with intensity, passion and love.
    Generally, all teachers pass in sequence from pre-service stage into
    the induction stage of their careers. Those that remain in the profession,
    stand to branch off into one of the several stages beyond the induction.
    These include (a) the competency-building stage, (b) the enthusiastic and
    growing stage, (c) the stable and stagnant stage, (d) the career-frustration
    stage, and (e) the career wind-down stage.
    With this reality, the development of the teacher as a professional
    becomes the key to a successful learning culture within a school. Since
    quality teaching demands a continuous monitoring of performance and a
    commitment to view professional development as a career-long enterprise,
    preparation for teaching also becomes a career long process.
    Undoubtedly, part of this process is the continuous professional growth
    teachers are expected to commit themselves so that they may become



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    5
    open to new information and approaches as they monitor changes in their
    personal and professional environments.
    From the early 1900s to the late ‘50s, research on teaching focused
    on teacher effectiveness. Traits and attributes most and least preferred of
    teachers by students, teacher educators and school administrators were
    identified. Attributes of most-liked teachers included enthusiasm,
    adaptability, good judgment, magnetism, fairness, kindness and love,
    ability to teach and counsel, consideration, open-mindedness, consistency,
    sense of humor, pleasing personality and good grooming. The least liked
    teachers were perceived as unfair, aloof, arrogant, bossy, irritable, cranky,
    and boring. They reportedly had no sense of humor, insulted students and
    did not allow for freedom of expression. (Reyes, 2002)
    However, in the ‘60s and ‘70s, researchers realized that studies on
    teaching effectiveness could not be confined to the narrow dimension of
    teacher traits or attributes. This dimension did not consider teaching
    practices, and gave the impression that teachers are born. Consequently,
    researchers’ attention that shifted to the identification of classroom
    teaching practices that differentiated effective from ineffective teachers.
    Researchers sat in classes a couple of times during the school year then



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    6
    documented, with the use of observation instruments, how teachers
    conducted classroom instruction. The frequencies of occurrences of
    teaching practices - such as observing wait-time in questioning, giving
    feedback, using praise, keeping students on task and using varied
    teaching methodologies- were averaged across observations and
    correlated with teaching outcomes, usually measured by students’ scores
    in standardized tests. These efforts characterized the so-called “process-
    product” studies, which established the conclusion that differences in
    learning may be attributed to differences in teachers’ technical skills and
    teaching practices. Teachers who are flexible in implementing different
    teaching methodologies were described as more effective than those who
    were rigid or who employed one teaching method long after its particular
    contribution that had been utilized effectively. The former were referred to
    as cognitive flexible teachers: teaching approach was needed. Students’
    active engagement in to the growing list of effective teaching practices
    (Rosenshine & Berliner, 1978; Shulman, 1986 in Reyes, 2002). Compared
    with their less effective peers, the more effective teachers were described
    as being more organized in teaching, spending more time in active
    instruction and student-teacher discourse, and placing more emphasis on



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    7
    mastery learning. They had greater rapport with students, paid more
    attention to students’ individual differences, taught with greater enthusiasm
    and demonstrated better communication and motivation skills.
    Salomon supported that the need for students’ active involvement in
    learning is based on his descriptions of responsible teaching. For him
    (Salomon), responsible teaching involves the proper carrying out of the
    role of the teacher as an orchestrator catering to different students
    (Salomon, 1992 in Reyes, 2002). It entails assuming responsibility for the
    learning process and outcomes, while at the same time judiciously shifting
    this responsibility to students. Salomon further views responsible teaching
    as the serious consideration, selection and design (as contrasted with
    mindless adoption) of instructional means, activities, tasks, and the like in
    the light of normative and moral criteria.
    For Shulman (in Reyes, 2002), the professional knowledge of expert
    teachers goes beyond subject matter mastery. These teachers know
    varied generic teaching strategies applicable across disciplines. They are
    familiar with the curriculum materials appropriate for the subjects they
    handle, as well as with the special techniques suited to particular groups of
    learners and lessons. They are aware of different settings for learning, and



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    8
    are fully acquainted with goals and objectives of teaching. Expert teaches
    have “elaborate system of knowledge”. Precisely, the quality of this
    knowledge differentiates them from their colleagues, (Peterson &
    Comeaux, 1989 in Reyes, 2002). In addition, their vast depository of
    knowledge is so well-organized that they can make adaptations for any
    given classroom situation or need (Galton, 1989 in Reyes, 2002).
    Shulman asserts that “teaching is and has always been at the center
    of all education and educational reform”. Thus, any research that focuses
    on teaching is significant, especially if it provides an empirical base that
    can guide policy action on teachers and teaching (Reyes, 2002).
    It is in this light that this study will be undertaken. The main concern
    of the study is to determine if the teaching competencies of teachers
    evidenced through their teaching performance have any significant
    relationship with the students’ achievement. The study is limited to the
    teachers at Thai Nguyen University teaching General education courses.
    Student achievement is limited to the final average obtained by the student
    in the subjects wherein he is enrolled during the school year 2013 – 2014.
    This study is deemed beneficial to the school managers who
    through the findings will gain a better understanding of the importance of



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    9
    the evaluation of teachers’ performance and thus guide them in formulating
    policies and programs that will respond to the teachers’ needs and
    contribute to the teachers’ teaching effectiveness. The teachers
    themselves will be motivated to demonstrate the desired competencies
    that contribute to successful teaching; thus, they will produce better
    outputs in terms of academic achievement which in turn may qualify them
    for recognition by the school management. The study will also add to the
    present knowledge on the areas of teaching performance and teaching
    effectiveness and inspire other researchers to conduct further studies on
    teaching performance and student achievement using other correlates
    such as board examination results.
    Statement of the problem
    As a teacher at the English Department, School of Foreign
    Languages - Thai Nguyen University, the researcher realized the fact that
    students have a lot of problems concerning their English language
    learning. It is true that they have twelve periods of English a week and
    teachers are alert to help them with their problems.
    This research is designed to improve the students’ achievement in English
    specifically it will seek to answer the following questions:



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    10
    1. What is the level of teachers’ instructional performance in terms of:
    1.1 subject matter expertise
    1.2 classroom management expertise
    1.3 instructional expertise
    1.4 communication expertise
    1.5 diagnostic expertise and
    1.6 relational expertise
    2. What is the level of student achievement in terms of their final grades in
    their English subjects?
    3. Is there a significant relationship between the teachers’ instructional
    performance and the students’ achievement in English?
    4. Which of the teachers’ competencies is the best predictor of students’
    achievement in English?
    5. What measures can be proposed to enhance the teachers’ teaching
    effectiveness?
    Scope, Delimitation and Lmitation of the study
    This study will attempt to determine if a significant relationship exists
    between the teachers’ instructional performance and the students’
    academic achievement. Specifically it will seek to describe the level of



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    11
    teachers’ instructional performance in terms of the following competencies:
    subject matter expertise, classroom management expertise, instructional
    expertise, communication expertise, diagnostic expertise and relational
    expertise.
    It will also seek to describe the level of the student achievement in
    terms of their final averages in the general education and professional
    subjects and determine if a significant relationship exists between the
    teachers’ instructional performance and the students’ academic
    achievement.
    Finally, the study will identify which of the teachers’ competencies
    appears to be the best predictor of student achievement. Based on the
    findings of the study, the researcher will propose measures to enhance the
    teachers’ teaching effectiveness

    Subject research participants of the study
    This study is deemed significant to the following:
    To the subject research participants, TNU teachers of Foreign
    Languages, for they can have the chance to evaluate their own


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    12
    performance based on the identified domains and likewise realizes their
    own strengths and weaknesses.
    To the school administrators, the findings of this investigation can
    serve as basis in coming up with plans to institutionalize some
    standardized self-evaluation instrument that will address the specific needs
    of the teaching force.
    To the Human Resource and Management Department, the result of
    this study can serve as guide in their future plans to modify some existing
    teacher’s assessment instrument and likewise come up with a more
    appropriate and relevant training programs for teachers.
    To the curriculum planners, for they can solicit the assistance of the
    subject research participants to provide inputs for any proposed curriculum
    development since they are the ones directly involved in implementing any
    future curricular program of the school.
    And lastly, to the students of Thai Nguyen University, who are direct
    stakeholders of education, since any improvement in the teachers’
    proficiency can likewise enhance the students’ achievement.

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