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    TIẾN SĨ Kĩ năng tiếp nhận và kĩ năng thực hành của sinh viên năm thứ nhất trong Đại học Thái Nguyên: Cơ sở cho các hoạt động nghe và nói tiếng Anh

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  6. Kĩ năng tiếp nhận và kĩ năng thực hành của sinh viên năm thứ nhất trong Đại học Thái Nguyên: Cơ sở cho các hoạt động nghe và nói tiếng Anh

    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Page
    TABLE OF CONTENT i
    LIST OF TABLE iii
    CHAPTER
    I. THE PROBLEM . 4
    Introduction . 4
    Statement of the Problem . 10
    Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study . 12
    Significance of the Study 13
    II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 15
    Conceptual Literature . 15
    Research Literature 34
    Synthesis 40
    Theoretical Framework . 43
    Conceptual Framework 46
    Hypothesis 48
    Definition of Terms . 48
    III. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE 51
    Research Environment 51
    Research Design . 53
    Subjects of the Study 53


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    2
    Data Gathering Instrument 55
    Data Gathering Procedure 57
    Statistical Treatment of Data . 58
    IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 59
    INTRODUCTION . 83
    V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 101
    Conclusions 111
    Recommendations: 112
    BIBLIOGRAPHY 113
    APPENDICES 124
    A. Letters of Request
    B. Questionnaires
    C. Documentations
    CURRICULUM VITAE


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    3
    LIST OF TABLES

    Table Title Page
    1 Distribution of Sample Respondents . 54
    2 Gender Profile of the Student Respondents . 59
    3. Residence Profile of the Student Respondents 62
    4. Parent's Education Profile of the Student Respondents . 63
    5. Years of Exposure to English Media of the Student Respondents.
    6. Type of English Media Exposure of the Student Respondents . 65
    7. Level of student's performance in the listening skill test. 66
    8 Ranking of student's performance in the listening skill test
    according to degree of difficulty . 78
    9. Ranking of student's performance in the speaking skill test
    according to degree of difficulty . 79
    10. List of 8 listening and speaking skills validated to be employed.
    in teaching the Basic English course by the respondents
    11. List of 8 listening and speaking skills and their frequency of use
    by the respondents. . .
    12. List of 8 listening and speaking skills and their degree of
    importance. .
    13. Parameters used as basis for the design of remedial learning
    and speaking activities. . 80


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    4
    CHAPTER I
    THE PROBLEM

    Introduction
    In the day to day life, language plays a very vital role in
    communication. Most of daily activities need the interplay of these four
    language skills listening, speaking, reading and writing. A balance among
    them should be required for an individual to become an efficient and
    effective speaker of the language but there seem to be factors that lead to
    its incompleteness causing problems to users of the second language.
    It has been claimed that over 50 percent of the time that students
    spend functioning in a foreign language will be devoted to listening
    (Nunan,1998). Despite this, among the four language skills, listening is
    taken for granted, it is least understood and most overlooked. Since the
    natural precursor to speaking is listening, in a person‟s first language, the
    early stages of language development are dependent on listening. In first
    language education on going attention is needed for both listening and
    speaking development. Before, first language speakers were taken for
    granted in terms of instruction relative to reading and writing but not for
    listening and speaking because these skills were acquired by native
    speakers automatically.


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    5
    In the 1980‟s, listening had a very important role in second language
    learning. This notion resulted to a corresponding drop in the importance of
    speaking in the early stages of learning and that even in a course it is
    discouraged to speak early. Based on the insight on what it means to learn
    a language support the contention of giving emphasis to listening and delay
    speaking.
    One way of learning the language is attributed to listening. There are
    approaches to language teaching that gave importance to listening. Nord‟s
    (1980) view was clearly expressed when he stated that some people now
    believe that learning a language is building a map of meaning in the mind
    and these people believe that talking may indicate that the language was
    learned, but they do not believe that practice in talking is the best way to
    build up this cognitive map in the mind and in doing this, they feel that the
    best method is to practice listening. Through listening, the learner is given
    information from which the knowledge necessary for using the language is
    built up. The learner can start speaking when knowledge is built up.
    There are many benefits if learners concentrate to listening and delay
    speaking. One of these is cognitive benefit wherein there will be no
    overloading relative to focus of the learner on two or more skills. Another is
    the speed of coverage, wherein, since receptive knowledge grows faster
    than productive knowledge, there is a possibility to experience and to learn


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    6
    more about language through listening. Further, there is a strong effect on
    motivation if there is a move to realistic communicative listening activities. It
    is a psychological benefit also to have listening activities involved in
    language learning as it reduces stress and in independent learning these
    activities are well suited.
    Listening before is viewed as passive process wherein the listener
    acts as receiver of information transmitted by the speaker. Recently, a
    much more active and interpretive process is attributed to listening as the
    message is not fixed since it is created through interactional space between
    participants. Listeners constructed meanings that are shaped by context
    through the act of interpreting meaning, rather than receiving it intact
    (Lynch, 2002).
    Listening comprised not only of one skill but varied sub- skills. There
    is better performance in comprehension questions for listeners with more
    skills. A fundamental platform for second language development and
    content learning is provided through experiences with meaning-focused
    listening. Directed attention to perceptual processing and parsing skills
    enriched these experiences. Finding an appropriate balance between
    providing opportunities for listening skill development through meaning –
    focused listening and through language learning focused listening which
    focuses on bottom-up listening practice is needed by teachers.

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