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    TIẾN SĨ Biên soạn nguồn tài liệu cho 3 kĩ năng nghe, nói và đọc tiếng Anh cho sinh viên năm thứ hai tại Đại học Thái Nguyên

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    dream dream Đang Ngoại tuyến (18495 tài liệu)
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  6. Biên soạn nguồn tài liệu cho 3 kĩ năng nghe, nói và đọc tiếng Anh cho sinh viên năm thứ hai tại Đại học Thái Nguyên

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    TABLE OF CONTENTS i
    LIST OF TABLES .iii
    LIST OF FIGURES iv
    LIST OF FIGURES iv
    CHAPTER

    I. THE PROBLEM 5
    Introduction 5
    Statement of the Problem 11
    Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study 12
    Significance of the Study .13
    II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 15
    Conceptual Literature 15
    Synthesis .49
    Theoretical Framework 52
    Conceptual Framework .54
    Hypothesis .55
    Definition of Terms 58
    III. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE 60
    Research Design .60
    Subjects of the Study 63


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    ii
    Data Gathering Instrument 64
    Data Gathering Procedure 67
    Statistical Treatment of Data .68
    IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
    OF DATA 70
    V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
    RECOMMENDATIONS .110
    Summary .172
    Conclusions .182
    Recommendations 184
    BIBLIOGRAPHY 185
    APPENDICES 191
    A. Letter of Requests .192
    B. Questionnaire 200
    C. Documentation 220
    CURRICULUM VITAE 228



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    iii
    LIST OF TABLES

    Table Title Page

    1. Gender Profile of the Student Respondents .71
    2. Parent's educational attainment .72
    3. Place of Origin of the Student Respondents .74
    4. Type of High School Profile 76
    5. Level of students’ performance in the learning modality of reading 77
    6. Level of student's performance in the learning modality of listening 80
    7. Level of student's performance in the learning modality of speaking 82
    8. Student's Performance in the Three Language Modality Test Groups
    stratified according to the students’ profile variables 85
    9 .Student Skills Employed in teaching the Basic English course .88
    10. Student skills and Their Frequency of Use .90
    11. Student Skills and Their Degree of Importance 91
    12. Student's Performance in Three Language Modalities and .92
    13. Teacher's Assessment .92
    14. Base for the design of remedial exercises on the three modalities of
    language .94


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    iv
    LIST OF FIGURES

    Table Title Page
    1. Conceptual Paradigm of the study . 58



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    5
    CHAPTER I
    THE PROBLEM

    Introduction
    English as a versatile language is considered an amazing language.
    Though it only ranked third in terms of the number of people using, still it
    becomes the global language and declared as the “lingua franca” of the
    world.
    English language is spread through the demands of the business
    sector, the academe, science and technology, and the diplomatic advocacy
    of the espousing country. There are reasons identified why foreign
    language learners need to learn English. First to be able to do business, to
    be educated, to have a political alliance with, to be able to work or migrate
    in America, for it is believed that proficiency in this language offers
    attractive economic returns; uplifts the status of people in the third world
    countries and English language serves as the major bridge towards greater
    opportunities, understanding, academic progress and personal
    development.
    Being aware of the importance of the English language, government
    agencies of most countries invest on English learning process. They have
    set goals to improve the English proficiency of their component population
    and impose programs through their educational system. This scenario is



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    6
    not new to Vietnam and in fact the government has planned long term
    national project in line with foreign languages. They set programs to uplift
    the status not only of the English proficiency of its students but also the
    competence of language teachers from primary to tertiary schools
    Learners studying the foreign language basically develop
    competence in speaking and writing with emphasis on grammar. There are
    four ways in learning the English language. These include visual or seeing,
    auditory or hearing, kinaesthetic or moving, and tactile or touching.
    According to Bandler, R. et al. (1997) language learning involves
    stimulation of multiple areas in the brain and that English language learning
    to be effective cannot be just one dimensional which means that the more
    faculties involved, the better and longer term is the learning. Understanding
    or the cognitive skills are not always involved in the learning process which
    explains the reason why adults tend to learn the second language slower
    compared to the young.
    English language has four modalities or skills and these include
    reading, writing, speaking and listening. In learning the language, listening
    comes first, followed by speaking, then reading and finally writing. There
    are two ways how these four language modalities are related to each other.
    These are the direction of communication the in or out and the method of
    communication the spoken or the written.


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    7
    Reading as a skill that helps man discover new things around him
    serves as the foundation of learning of an individual. One acquires
    knowledge and key concepts from the simplest to the most complex
    through reading. It is considered vital in different learning situations. Ability
    to read well provides opportunities for personal fulfilment and job success.
    Further as an important skill in communication, reading is also a
    multifaceted process. It involves word recognition, comprehension, fluency
    and motivation. A person gets information from written letters and words
    through reading. As a basic life skill, reading serves as a cornerstone for a
    student’s success in school since all subjects require this skill for smooth
    flow and transfer of learning. Total comprehension is the ultimate goal of
    reading and integration of several or all subskills into a unitary skill during
    reading is required. Reacting to authentic and real reading materials at
    different levels of comprehension such as literal, interpretative, evaluative
    critical and creative levels on the other hand are the ways integration is
    achieved.
    Listening as language modality is a very important area of
    communication. There is an active involvement of individual in listening as
    it involves a sender, a message and a receiver. Willingness of an individual
    to participate completely in a communicative situation signifies good
    listening. A number of processes also work on various levels in order to


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    8
    produce an understanding of the incoming speech when good listeners
    involve themselves with any type of spoken discourse.
    In addition, listening is also important in the development of spoken
    language proficiency. Means of interaction for the learner is provided by
    spoken language likewise access to speakers of the language is essential
    because learners must interact to achieve understanding. Good and proper
    listening stimulates better communication in actual speaking situation.
    Considered the productive skill in the oral mode is speaking. As a
    communication skill a person is able to verbalize his thoughts and ideas
    through speaking. A person may get involve into three kinds of speaking
    situations such as interactive speaking, partially interactive speaking and
    non- interactive speaking. In interactive listening, learners are engaged in
    listening and speaking alternately, and through a conversation partner,
    request to slow down conversation, clarification and repetition can be done
    while in partially interactive speaking, the speaker may continue to deliver
    his speech without interruption from the audience. Non-interactive
    speaking can best manifest in speech recording or a radio broadcast. No
    actual interaction happens.
    Good speaking and listening as part of one process can help
    learners to become successful in and out of school. It is believed that if
    learner speaks well, ideas can be expressed clearly, likewise, if the learner
    listens well more learning can be remembered. That is why integration of


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    9
    these language modalities is considered important in classroom activities
    to ensure learners’ participation in the use of language. This integration is
    done for reinforcement of lessons. The integration of language modalities
    can best be illustrated for instance in writing where it helps learner improve
    their speaking skills, so as with reading where it facilitates learner’s writing
    competence.
    Improved competence in other modalities resulted from practice in
    one modality. Teacher can project how learners can use language for a
    variety of purposes if language modalities are integrated in curriculum and
    instruction. Modalities can be integrated in instruction through lessons and
    assessments more formally and informally for student’s language
    production scaffolding. A technique that teacher can make use in
    integrating modalities is through cooperative learning. Here learners can
    work together by means of speaking and listening to each other and also
    synthesizing information through reading and writing their ideas for
    possible presentation.
    In language modalities, learners encountered difficulties. In reading,
    learners no longer enjoy reading as most of them are not fluent readers.
    They have hard time understanding a given text as they have not acquired
    necessary competence in reading or they lack comprehension in what they
    are reading. They also encountered problems in pronunciation and


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    10
    recognition of English words as well as learners’ inability to group words
    into thought units.
    In listening on the other hand, learners’ have to cope up with the
    problems on vocabulary structures and rate of delivery. Learners also have
    short attention span and lose focus due to lack of understanding of the
    topic when it comes to listening to a native speaker of the language.
    Learners also encountered problem relative to sound of the English
    language. It takes sometimes for them to identify the sounds which are
    unfamiliar to them.
    The skill of speaking is considered a more difficult one. Learners
    might be forced to speak a language which they are not comfortable with,
    due to lack of understanding of its sentence structure, grammar and word
    order. Though learners might have knowledge of words but their lack of
    understanding of their proper use in sentences poses another problem.
    As an English teacher teaching Basic English subjects among
    second year college students of Thai Nguyen University, the researcher
    has encountered the above mentioned problems in her classes, she is
    interested to know students’ performance in the three modalities of
    language namely; reading, listening and speaking to come up with a
    resource material designed to reinforce students learning in Basic English.
    Further, among Vietnamese college students in Thai Nguyen
    University (TNU). In fact, there has not been an attempt to assess the


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    11
    performance of students in the three learning modalities. It was clearly
    shown that ELL classes would greatly benefit from learner-centered
    English language pedagogy. Thus, it is perceived that this study can be
    feasibly done among TNU students and would reveal basic and essential
    information towards the effective English language teaching at their level.
    Moreover, it will serve as basis for the author to formulate instructional
    materials and pertinent student activities that would be responsive to the
    needs of these students.

    Statement of the Problem
    This study determined the three modalities of learning English
    among sophomore college students of Thai Nguyen University, Vietnam to
    serve as basis for proposed resource materials.
    Specifically, this sought answer to the following questions:
    1. What are the characteristics of sophomore students with
    reference to:
    1.1. gender;

    1.2. parents’ educational attainment;

    1.3 students’ place of origin;

    1.4. type of school attended (high school)





    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    12

    2. What is the performance of students in the following language
    modalities?
    2.1. Reading
    2.2. listening
    2.3. speaking
    3. Are there significant differences on the performance of students
    when grouped according to their profile variables?
    4. How do teachers assess the performance of students in
    the three language modalities?
    5. Are there any significant differences between the performance of
    students and the teachers’ assessment on the three modalities?
    6. What resource materials may be prepared for each of the three
    language modalities?

    Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study
    This study focused on determining the performance of students in
    the three modalities of language namely; reading, listening, oral or
    speaking. Profiles of sophomore college students were also determined in
    terms of gender, parents’ educational attainment, students’ place of origin
    and type of school attended.


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    13
    The descriptive method of research was used in the study applying
    survey technique for teacher assessment of responses and teacher-made
    test to determine students’ performance. Respondents of the study include
    357 second year college English language students at some selected
    colleges of Thai Nguyen University in Vietnam and 60 English teachers.
    The survey questionnaire and teacher-made test served as the sources of
    data for statistical analyses.
    The study was limited to the profile variables of the sophomore
    college students of TNU and the three modalities mentioned in the study as
    well as to the responses of their respective English language teacher which
    served also as other respondents of the study. The study was further
    delimited to the year level of students indicated in the study and to the
    specified subject area. The study did not include writing modality thus
    became part of the delimitation of the study.

    Significance of the Study

    This study is significant to the following:
    Students. Results of the study will provide students with rich
    information and knowledge as regards to how they could enrich their
    learning in the three modes of language. They will also benefit from the
    resource materials developed.


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


    14
    Teachers. The study will benefit the teachers through the
    experience gained in the utilization of the resource materials developed for
    language modalities to their students. They would also be equipped with
    materials that they can use to effectively improve their students language
    performance.
    Administrator. The results of the study will provide them a clear
    basis for introducing the innovation that may come out of the study to their
    respective schools.
    Policy-makers. They will gain insights on the typical language
    modalities prevalent among the students and would initiate advocacy and
    policies pertinent to the findings of the study.
    Researcher. The researcher will provide other teachers with useful
    method and techniques that can improve their effectiveness in teaching
    lessons. They can reduce disadvantages and teach students in a more
    effective way.
    Future Researcher. Other researchers may be interested in this
    topic so they can conduct similar study

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