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    TIẾN SĨ Triết lý hòa bình và hòa hợp của Đức Đa-lại Lạt-ma thứ 14 và một số nhà tư tưởng yêu chuộng hòa bình

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  6. Triết lý hòa bình và hòa hợp của Đức Đa-lại Lạt-ma thứ 14 và một số nhà tư tưởng yêu chuộng hòa bình

    ii
    ABSTRACT

    Title: Teachings on peace and harmony of the 14
    th
    Dalai
    Lama and selected peace advocates

    Author: Tran Thi Nhi
    Course: Doctor of Philosophy in English language and literature.
    Year: 2014
    Advisor: Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez


    Summary

    This study analyzed the selected works by the 14
    th
    Dalai Lama, a
    modern day leading figure of peace, and some other authors namely
    Mawlana Rumi, Rabindranath Tagore, Pope John Paul II and Daisaku
    Ikeda to explore how peace and harmony is conceptualized by these
    peace advocates. Likewise, the study aimed to reveal the universal
    concepts of peace and harmony shared by the peace advocates as the
    representatives of different cultures and religions. The research also
    discussed and how their common teachings on peace and harmony
    have been transferred into a global peace movement.
    Although these peace movement leaders represent different
    religions and come from different cultures, they share much in common in


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines






    iii
    espousing their view on peace as a way of life. In this study the author
    attempts to weave a mosaic of universal and permanent moral values
    and principles, rooted in the teachings of these advocates for peace.
    This mosaic promotes a spirit of respecting cultural pluralism, cultivate
    human good qualities and appraise responsibility must be integrated in
    education so that the young generation’s peace spirit is fostered,
    energized and enlivened through literature and culture. She proposes
    the adoption of this new paradigm for living in the modern world.





















    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines






    iv
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    This has been a wonderful life changing experience for which I
    am so very grateful. It would not have been possible without the
    kindness and generosity of several people.
    I wish to acknowledge my special debt and my deepest gratitude
    to Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez, my supervisor, whose generous help and
    constant encouragement have been valuable. Her intellectual curiosity,
    dedication, openness and humility have showed me a model of
    scholarly endeavour that will follow me for my whole life. My study of
    peace and harmony began under her inspiring direction.
    I would also like to sincerely thank the faculty at the Graduate
    School, Batangas State University for their invaluable guidance and
    support throughout my studies. My thanks should go to my colleagues
    and at Thai Nguyen School of Foreign Languages, Vietnam for their
    encouragement and support.
    For setting an example to aspire to, as well as for his friendship, I
    thank Dr. Melvyn Sakaguchi.
    Finally, my special thanks should be expressed to my family and
    friends for their unconditional love, support and their trust in my ability to
    complete this.


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines






    v
    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    TITLE PAGE . i
    TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
    THE PROBLEM 1
    Introduction 1
    Statement of the Problem 7
    Scope, Delimitation and Limitations of the Study 8
    Significance of the Study .10
    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 14
    Conceptual Literature 14
    Synthesis of Literature Review .57
    Definition of Terms .67
    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .71
    ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION .78
    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 169



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines






    1
    Chapter I
    THE PROBLEM

    Introduction
    There exist myriad problems in the current world which threaten
    the existence of humanity. Violence is accelerating everywhere.
    Ceaseless wars and conflicts are taking place in several regions, killing
    thousands of people and causing suffering for millions of human beings.
    Furthermore, more and more modern weapons with massive
    destruction capacity are being produced, threatening the whole mankind
    in every minute. Meanwhile, the world is also faced with terrorism,
    environmental pollution, racial religious conflicts, political disputes,
    social and economic inequality, the large gap between the rich and the
    poor, diseases and poverty.
    Making the situation worse, these problems happen in every
    continent without exception, and tend to happen to not only one nation
    or a few nations but also bigger groups of nations.
    For example, the United States and Western countries have
    recently experienced terrorist attacks, civil unrest and violent
    massacres; the political disputes between Russia and other European
    countries around the issues related to Ukraina has resulted in the


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines






    2
    embargo and trade and business sanctions which creates hardships for
    of millions of citizens in the European continent; the rise of terrorist
    country self-called Isis has created turmoil and terrible violence in
    Middle East and North Africa; constant conflicts in the China Sea are
    threatening the stability and the maintenance of peace in the South East
    Asia.
    All of these catastrophic events beg the question of how to save
    humanity.
    As stated in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
    Cultural Organization (UNESCO) constitution, the statement that “Since
    wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the
    defenses of peace must be constructed” is an appeal for a psychology
    of peace, a movement which seeks to find a the solution to conflicts
    without violence but via mutual and harmonious relationships.
    Accordingly, peace education is a principal means to maintain
    and promote peace. To establish and foster a culture of peace is a
    necessity for any nation, including Vietnam - a country vulnerable to
    peace.
    Aligning with UNESCO constitution, the country has been a long
    time advocate for peace, maintaining and promoting education for


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines






    3
    peace via its education policies implemented in both informal teaching
    and formal education.
    Peace education as a social movement can be traced back from
    religious traditions. For centuries, peace and peaceful resolution of
    conflict was primarily discussed in the teachings of religious leaders
    such as Lao Tse, Jesus Christ, the Buddha, the Dalai Lama, and Bahau
    llah, who taught that people were supposed to promote peace in their
    lives and in the world as a whole.
    The contribution that religious figures can make to peacemaking
    has been increasingly studied and recognized. Peace education has
    evolved from radical values in religious traditions of love, compassion,
    tolerance and charity to modern theories revolving interpersonal
    relations and environmental issues (Harris, 2002).
    Buddhism, the religion which was introduced to Vietnam about
    two thousand years ago, despite ups and downs, has tremendously
    influenced all facets of Vietnamese culture, especially the spiritual life
    and the system of moral values. Historically, most Vietnamese have
    dentified themselves with Buddhism. Buddhism was introduced to
    Vietnam as being a peaceful way, aimed at seeking justice,
    compassion, freedom for humans from sufferings. These beliefs are
    close to the long standing cultural values of the Vietnamese and


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines






    4
    suitable with Vietnamese people, who advocate peace and always
    desire happiness and freedom for their nation. Therefore, the religion
    was easily accepted and quickly spread by the Vietnamese.
    Throughout the country, there exist thousands of Buddhist
    pagodas in the cities and the countryside, playing an important part in
    the spiritual life and making an identified culture of the Vietnamese
    people. These pagodas function not only as the place for communal
    activities but also a place for ideological teachings to be conveyed.
    Buddhism has been considered as the national religion of
    Vietnam. During the Ly dynasty in the eleventh and twelfth century,
    Buddhism was so popular and vibrant that half of the Vietnamese
    population at that time followed it.
    In the 20th century, the country experienced a series of harsh
    historical events, affecting the development of the religion. However,
    with recent changes in economics and social developments, the picture
    of religious life within Vietnamese people has become more vivid. If in
    the past, only old women went to the temples and practiced Buddhist
    rituals, nowadays, there seems to be an increasing interest in practicing
    the religion in both men and women, and in both old people and young
    ones. This trend likely creates a a favorable environment to promote
    peace education for the whole nation in general and for its young


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines






    5
    generation in particular. It is undeniable that Buddhism has deep roots
    in Vietnamese culture, since its principal beliefs and values can be
    found in various facets of Vietnamese culture, from folklore, arts and
    literature to many aspects of everyday life. The religion has been
    imbedded in the common life of the Vietnamese communities.
    The core value in the philosophy of Buddhism largely
    recognized by the Eastern Buddhist countries and recently by
    Western countries is its interpretation of peace and harmony, its
    nature and the way to attain it.
    For centuries, Buddhist countries have practiced the doctrine and
    followed the teachings of Buddha. However, in the modern era where
    rapid development in information technology is at hand, it is very timely
    to contemplate if the Buddhist philosophy on peace and harmony is still
    appropriate for the hectic and busy and frenetic life style experienced
    by people in the present day.
    The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, a Tibetan Buddhist monk,
    has been the primary proselytizer and advocate of the philosophy of
    peace and harmony from the perspective of Buddhism in recent times.
    Notably, he has been successful in making relevant the thousand-year
    wisdom of Buddhism to the specific and practical teachings for the
    modern life of the new millennium.


    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam



    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines






    6
    Beside the Dalai Lama, there have been a great number of peace
    advocates, including religious figures, political leaders, literary writers
    and philosophers, who have advocated the teachings of peace and
    harmony in their books, sermons and speeches. All of this have
    provided a basis for a trend and a growing movement for peace and
    harmony in modern times. Because of the importance of this peace
    movement, the researcher has decided to focus on studying the works
    of the Dalai Lama and a few other selected advocates of the peace
    movement to have a deeper and holistic view on understanding of the
    concepts of peace in current time and discuss the implications of this
    movement for life in modern times, particularly its impact on Vietnamese
    student values.

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