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    TIẾN SĨ Lòng Từ Bi, Bác Ái trong những tác phẩm tuyển chọn của Thích Nhất Hạnh gắn với giáo dục giá trị cho sinh viên Việt Nam

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  6. Lòng Từ Bi, Bác Ái trong những tác phẩm tuyển chọn của Thích Nhất Hạnh gắn với giáo dục giá trị cho sinh viên Việt Nam

    ABSTRACT
    Title : Agape in the Selected Works of Thich Nhat Hanh:
    Implications on Vietnamese Students’ Values
    Author : MA. Nguyen Thuy Linh
    Degree : Doctor of Philosophy
    Major : English Language and Literature
    Year : 2014
    Adviser : Dr. Luisa A. Valdez


    Summary
    The study attempted to analyze Thich Nhat Hanh’s two selected
    works entitled True Love: A Practice of Awakening the Heart and Being
    Peace, pointing out events and situations on how the agape is reflected
    in these works. Likewise, this study tries to present how the selected
    works of Thich Nhat Hanh manifest the meaning of respect, peace, and
    service; and to show the social issues particularly focused on the youth;
    and to bring about from these works the implications of agape on
    Vietnamese students’ values. This dissertation was guided by the idea
    that literature can be a writer’s channel for conveying the philosophical



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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    iv
    This study employed the qualitative method of research in
    analyzing the tenets of agape in the representative literary works
    chosen. This study also involved content analysis, which is a systematic
    technique in analyzing message content and message handling.
    The data analysis in this research centered on pattern seeking
    and the extraction of meaning from Thich Nhat Hanh’s selected literary
    narrative or image data. Much effort was focused on the task of
    recording data or making notes through concepts and categories;
    altering or creating new codes or more subtle categories; linking and
    combining abstract concepts; extracting the essence; organizing
    meaning; creating theory from emerging themes; writing an
    understanding; and drawing conclusions.
    The essential features in the treatment of materials were
    considered by the researcher in the conduct of this study. The general
    rules cited by Stott (2014) as regards the seven standards a piece of
    literature should abide to in order to be considered literary guided in the
    selection of works under study.
    For the purpose of this study and to give philosophical credibility,
    the representative literary works were analyzed: Love Is Being There,
    Overcoming Pride, Interbeing, Meditation in Daily Life, Feelings and
    Perceptions, Working for Peace, Telephone Meditation, Everybody



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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




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    Republic of the Philippines



    v
    Should Practice Mindfulness, The Heart of Practice, and The Three
    Gems, which are all found in his masterpieces entitled True Love: A
    Practice of Awakening the Heart, and Being Peace.
    In subjecting the materials to internal and external criticism and
    analysis, the meaning and trustworthiness of the statements in the
    aforecited primary and secondary sources were carefully chartered and
    analyzed.
    Likewise, to attain congruency between the theories used in
    explaining the concept of agape, coding and categorization were
    conducted. Direct lines were lifted from the selections served as the
    primary and juxtaposed with the theoretical statements discussed.
    These passages from the chosen prose and poetry substantiated the
    theoretical basis of the study.

    Findings
    The study yielded the following findings:
    1. The Historical Root of Agape in the Buddhist Tradition

    The root of agape in the Buddhist religion started with the birth of
    Buddha Shakyamuni as a royal prince in 624 BC in a place called
    Lumbini, which was originally in Northern India but is now part of Nepal.
    “Shakya” is the name of the royal family into which he was born, and



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    Republic of the Philippines



    vi
    “Muni” means “Able One.” His parents gave him the name Siddharta
    and there were many wonderful predictions about his future. In his early
    years, he lived as a prince in his royal palace but when he was 29 years
    old, he retired to a forest where he followed a life of spiritual meditation.
    His intention in founding Buddhism was to lead living beings to
    permanent liberation from suffering because he realized that temporary
    liberation from suffering and difficulties is not enough. Motivated by love
    and compassion, his aim was to help living beings find lasting love or
    nirvana.
    Historically, agape is one of the basic founding principles of
    Buddhism. Motivated by love and compassion, the founder of Buddhism
    strived to help others find love. This clearly states the early stint of
    unselfish, unrequited love, agape love, in the early days of Buddhism.
    Buddhism, formed from the very beginning, has expressed relief
    of suffering and mental distress for men. In the teachings of the
    Buddha, people need to have agape - compassion and loving-kindness.
    This is a fundamental factor to help develop agape or compassion and
    relieve happiness suffering, leading to the orientation of Buddhist
    activities for people. Thus, one can already see the emergence of this
    virtue in the historical pages of Buddhism.



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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




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    Republic of the Philippines



    vii
    2. The Manifestations of Agape in the Following Works of Thich
    Nhat Hanh
    In the Buddhist tradition, the teachings on agape or true love
    offered by the Buddha are called the four Brahmaviharas. The word
    “vihara” is used to refer to an abode or a dwelling place and the word
    “brahmavihara” means dwelling place of the God Brahma. Thich Nhat
    Hanh (2011) and Ward and Ward (2008), called these teachings the
    four immeasurable namely: loving-kindness (maitri), compassion
    (karuna), joy (mudita), and equanimity (upeksha). They are said to be
    the four aspects of true love within every man and everything. They are
    referred to as “immeasurable” because of the belief that if men practice
    these virtues, the love in their hearts will grow so much that it cannot be
    measured.
    From the selected literary pieces, readers can glean Thich Nhat
    Hanh’s portrayal of how the practice of the immeasurable mind of
    loving-kindness extinguishes anger in the hearts of living beings; the
    practice of the immeasurable mind of compassion eliminates all sorrows
    and anxieties in the hearts of living-beings; the practice of
    immeasurable mind of joy removes sadness and joylessness in the
    hearts of living beings; and the practice of immeasurable mind of



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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




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    Republic of the Philippines



    viii
    equanimity puts an end to hatred, aversion, and attachment in the heart
    of living beings.
    3. The Virtues of Peace, Respect, and Service Portrayed in the
    Selected Works
    From the selections, Nhat Hanh’s concepts of the virtues of peace,
    respect, and service were also portrayed. This Zen Buddhist monk is
    convinced that everybody can practice mindfulness, inner peace, deep
    listening and loving speech not only for the sake of their own inner
    peace and happiness but for the other people as well. Another virtue
    which is portrayed in the selected works is respect or reverence. Such
    respect recognizes and honours the presence of the sacred in
    everything - the bodies, other people, animals, species, or nature.
    Respect is also an attitude men should have toward personal
    possessions, those of others, or things in the neighbourhood, village,
    community and surrounding landscape. The virtue of service is likewise
    portrayed in the identified works. Nhat Hanh believed that service does
    not start when people have something to give - it springs naturally when
    they have nothing left to take. They start to do their part - initially, by
    becoming mindful of the offerings and services they receive, then by
    feeling grateful for them, and finally by continuing to pay forward their
    blessings with a joyful heart. Service, for him means awareness or



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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    ix
    knowing what is going on. Nhat Hanh emphasized that when a group of
    people manifest the virtues of peace, respect and perform a kind of
    service as a practice, it creates an ecosystem that holds a space,
    allowing value to emerge organically. All of these indirect values, the
    ripple effect, have space and time to add up, synergize with other
    ripples, and multiply into something completely unexpected.
    4. The social issues particularly focusing on the youth are gleaned
    from the selections.
    In the context of this study, the term social issues are referred to
    as social problems or societal induced conditions that harm segments of
    the Vietnamese populace particularly the youth. These problems are
    also related to acts and conditions that violate the norms and values
    found in the society. Some of these common social issues particularly
    focused and have affected the youth which can be gleaned from the
    selected works of Nhat Hanh include poverty, environmental
    degradation, war, violence, equality or discrimination, social injustice,
    and suppression of human rights.
    5. The Implications of Thich Nhat Hanh’s Agape on Noted
    Vietnamese Values.
    The gentle and simple tone of Thich Nhat Hanh’s literature is an
    embodiment of the Vietnamese culture and way of life as well. In the



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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    x
    analysis of his writings, it can be gleaned that the central theme of
    agape, its facets, principles and related concepts, bore relation to noted
    Vietnamese values and customs as well. Nhat Hanh captured the true
    essence of agape in his selected works. The context of his works
    analyzed all showed the search of man for peace, compassion and love
    in a world where great changes are happening. In the same way, the
    world of Vietnamese people and their society is undergoing drastic
    changes too.
    Nhat Hanh’s agape, comprised of respect and peace, and service
    reflect the heart and soul of the Vietnamese people’s spirit. The
    unyielding attitude of these people against major challenges
    characterizes the compassion of the people for each other, concerned
    for the welfare of their kinsmen.
    Thus, through the selected works, the Vietnamese people,
    especially teenagers realize that agape or compassion plays an
    important role in life because it has left the depth of thought and
    become really ingrained moral lifestyle of the Vietnamese people.
    Concurrently, the practice of four immeasurable minds help men
    perfect moral personality, give them to altruism lifestyle, equality,
    charity.




    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    xi
    Conclusions
    Based on the findings and interpretations of the study, the
    following conclusions are drawn:
    1. The historical root of agape can be traced back to the early days
    of Buddhism and is manifested in many teachings of the said religion.
    2. From the selected literary pieces, Thich Nhat Hanh elaborated
    on the Four Immeasurable Minds known as loving-kindness,
    compassion, joy and equanimity as concrete expressions of man’s
    deepest love.
    3. Nhat Hanh emphasized that when a group of people manifest
    the virtues of peace, respect and perform a kind of service as a
    practice, it creates an ecosystem that holds a space, allowing value to
    emerge organically. All of these indirect values, the ripple effect, have
    space and time to add up, synergize with other ripples, and multiply into
    something completely unexpected.
    4. There are social issues particularly focused and have affected
    the youth. These include poverty, environmental degradation, war,
    violence, equality or discrimination, social injustice, and suppression of
    human rights. It is very important for the youth to take part in engaged
    Buddhism to avoid social problems that violate the norms and values of
    the Vietnam society.



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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    xii
    5. Research has also shown that practicing four immeasurable
    minds daily to help people curb greed, hatred and delusion to have the
    peaceful mind.

    Recommendations further studies
    From the foregoing findings and conclusions, the researcher offers
    the following recommendations:
    - Further and wider research or expanding the scope of the study
    order to look at the philosophy comprehensively and the radical
    Buddhist ethics aim to initiate, user-friendly human.
    - The further development of this study about Buddhism is to
    propose solutions to eliminate social evils in society, especially the
    youth.









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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




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    Republic of the Philippines



    xiii
    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the many
    individuals who have supported me in my studies.
    I wish to acknowledge first and foremost the instruction and hard
    work of my dissertation advisor, Dean of Colleges, Head of the
    Graduate School and Visiting Professor, Prof. Maluh A.Valdez. I feel
    truly lucky to have had the opportunity to work with her closely. It was
    she who first inspired and interested me in the field of literature and in
    her gentle way she has acted as an excellent advisor from the very
    beginning when I started working with her up to the present. She has
    always provided a helpful direction, assistance and support for my
    dissertation whenever I needed it. Without her guidance and support,
    this dissertation would have been impossible.
    I am also grateful to the other members of my doctoral
    committees from the Batagas State University, Philippines, Prof. Matilda
    H.Dimaano, Prof. Amada Banaag, Prof.Lavage B. Labura for their
    valuable comments and suggestions.
    I would like to thank to Dr. Prof. Dang Kim Vui, the President of
    TNU, for the linkage between the Thai Nguyen University and the
    Batangas State University and Dr. Prof. Nguyen The Hung, Director for



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    Republic of the Philippines



    xiv
    International Training Centre for his help so that the learners complete
    this course.
    Many thanks should also go to other related people for their
    academic supports towards the end of this research, Ms. Le Quynh Anh
    in International Training Center, College of Agriculture and Forestry,
    Thai Nguyen University.
    I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my family who are
    always there to cheer me up and stand by my side with the
    unquestioned support.
    Last, but not least, I am deeply indebted to my husband, for his
    patience and for his unlimited support and love. Without him, I would not
    have been able to complete this long journey.
    The Researcher











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    xv
    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Page
    TITLE PAGE i
    Table of Contents . . ii
    CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM
    Introduction . .

    1
    Statement of the Problem 4
    Scope,Delimitation and Limitation of the
    Study
    5
    Significance of the Study 7
    CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
    Conceptual Literature .

    9
    Research Literature . 35
    Synthesis . . 40
    Theoretical Framework 44
    Conceptual Framework 49
    Definition of Terms 52
    CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    Research Method

    52
    Treatment of Materials 56
    CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA



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    xvi
    Analysis and Interpretation 62
    CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
    RECOMMENDATIONS


    Summary . . 138
    Findings 141
    Conclusions 146
    Recommendations . . 147

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    CURRICULUM VITAE








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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam





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    Republic of the Philippines



    1
    CHAPTER I
    THE PROBLEM
    Introduction
    Nowadays, while the human being strides on the path of
    development towards the knowledge society, opened society, the more
    "great risk" posed for the whole society, including the degradation of
    ethics, lifestyle becoming a global problem. Sadly, this situation occurs
    more frequently in young people, especially, in pupils, and students -
    the future owners of the country. And Vietnam is one of the countries
    which need to give the alarm about morality and lifestyle. Facing
    requirements for sustainable development of the country, Vietnam is
    necessary to build a new moral foundation in order to be suitable for
    ages on the basis of inheriting the moral values, the good traditional of
    the nation.
    Born in India, spent nearly 20 centuries existence and
    development of the nation, Buddhism has left a deep commitment of
    thought and become really ingrained moral lifestyle of Vietnam people
    because Buddhism is always appreciated as compassion, charity. Since
    the transmission of Buddhism into Vietnam, the helping rescue the spirit
    of Buddha is widely promoted in a country where were affected by many
    war-torn, disasters. It is the important reasons to tie to Buddhism and be
    accompanied with the Vietnamese people through the long year.
    The philosophy of loving-kindness, compassion, joy, and
    equanimity encouraging human to live in a friendly and good way, it is
    easy for Buddhism to take part in the heart of human beings in order to
    perfect ethic personality, and create men to have lifestyle of altruism,
    equality, charity. It also has proved that Buddhism is in accordance with
    the ethics of Vietnamese people, and it has made a positive contribution



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    Republic of the Philippines



    2
    for the construction and defense of the homeland. Today in the complex
    context of the political situation - the world cultural, the positive values
    of Buddhism are proven again.
    Men have made significant progress in science and technology,
    but it is likely that people never feel miserable and anxious as today. A
    series of complicated political situation of the world and the dark side of
    the industry make the natural ecological environment and humanistic
    environment be seriously polluted. Among these challenges, increasing
    income gap, poverty reduction, rampant corruption, and ethnic conflicts
    and growing religion have appeared. In addition, natural disasters and
    climate change, the inequality of women, and poor understanding of the
    law, and the potential threat to growth and development of Asia
    countries in the future more and more, and Vietnam also suffer more
    from these hazards. Thus, before this situation, Buddhism has an
    important role to contribute to support our country's security and to
    ensure social justice.
    Buddhism, formed from the very beginning, has expressed relief
    of suffering and mental distress for men. In the teachings of the
    Buddha, people need to have agape - compassion and loving-kindness.
    This is a fundamental factor to help develop agape or compassion and
    relieve happiness suffering, leading to the orientation of Buddhist
    activities for people. Thus, in the literature, there are many works born
    and honestly reflect these phenomena. And the writer named as Thich
    Nhat Hanh is mentioned. He has considered as the one who was
    enlightening for people to enjoy the pure life. Agape is valuable quality
    required of every man that Nhat Hanh mentioned in the typical work of
    this study.

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