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    TIẾN SĨ Đấu tranh phi bạo lực được thể hiện trong một số tác phẩm điển hình của Mahatma Gandhi và Martin Luther King, Jr

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  6. Đấu tranh phi bạo lực được thể hiện trong một số tác phẩm điển hình của Mahatma Gandhi và Martin Luther King, Jr

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page
    TITLE PAGE i
    Table of Contents . . ii
    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
    Statement of the Problem

    1
    Objectives of the study . 8
    Significance of the Study 9
    Scope and Limitation of the Study 10
    CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
    Conceptual Literature .

    12
    Research Literature . 28
    Synthesis . . 36
    Conceptual Framework 39
    Definition of Terms 47
    CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    Research Method

    51
    Treatment of Materials 52
    CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF
    DATA
    58




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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




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    Republic of the Philippines


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    Analysis and Interpretation
    CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
    RECOMMENDATIONS


    Summary . . 166
    Findings 187
    Conclusions 196
    Recommendations . . 199

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    CURRICULUM VITAE







    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines



    CHAPTER I
    INTRODUCTION

    1.1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

    Mahatma Ghandi and Martin Luther King, Jr. are two of the
    world‟s most famous advocates of non-violence. Both struggled and
    committed themselves to create a society without the use of force. While
    Mahatma Ghandi never claimed to be a prophet or a philosopher, he
    was proud to say that the real significance of the Indian Freedom
    Movement was that it was waged non-violently. As for Martin Luther
    King, Jr., he envisioned a society in which race was not an issue in how
    people were treated or in how they were allowed to live their lives. His
    involvement on this became prominent in civil right movements that
    gained the respect of many political leaders and gave him the potential
    power to enact major change.
    Mahatma Ghandi adhered to non-violence not only because he
    believed that an unarmed people had little chance of success in an
    armed rebellion but also because he considered violence a clumsy
    weapon which created more problems than it solved. During his time,
    his emphasis on non-violence had a harsh or unpleasant effect both on
    his British and Indian critics, though for different reasons. During the



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    Republic of the Philippines
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    Indian struggle, the British critics saw non-violence as a camouflage.
    They didn‟t see it as a remarkable peaceful nature of Ghandi‟s
    campaign. To the Indian critics, especially the radical Indian politicians,
    who looked up on the French and Russian Revolutions or the struggles
    of the Italian and Irish nationalists, Ghandi‟s campaign on non-violence
    was a sheer sentimentalism. That it was obvious that force will yield
    force, and that it was foolish to miss opportunities and sacrifice tactical
    gains for reasons more relevant to ethics than to politics.
    On the other hand, Martin Luther King, Jr had a major impact on
    civil rights. He played a part in many well-known civil right movements
    in the 1950‟s and the 1960‟s. For instance, in 1955, he became heavily
    involved in the Montgomery, Alabama boycott of the city buses, which
    was spurred by the bus company‟s insistence that African Americans
    should only ride in the backseats. King‟s support drew much attention to
    the cause and rallied many supporters even outside of the Montgomery
    area, which put pressure on bus companies all over the South to
    examine their rules, and eventually, to change them.
    A key part of Martin Luther King, Jr.‟s vision, aside from the quest
    of racial equality, was the idea of non-violence. He refused to use
    violence in any of his protests, and taught his followers to do the same.
    Based on the principle of Ghandi, this factor of King‟s beliefs and



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    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


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    behavior was a major influence on the society at that time. Police forces
    didn‟t hesitate to use violence against demonstrators and protesters, but
    in the face of their quiet civil resistance, the overblown physical
    techniques of force and brutality lost their power. Martin Luther King, Jr.
    was responsible for the passing of the Civil Rights Act and Voting
    Rights Act for Africans, both in the mid of 1960‟s. These acts literally
    changed the American Law so that the African Americans could not be
    treated separately from the Whites. His victories in these two areas had
    a major impact in the United States and the world.
    In spite of all these resounding advocacies for non-violence, men
    continue to use force and violence as means to an end. Men didn‟t
    seem to have learned as proven by the presence of violence
    everywhere in the world. In today‟s world, people continue to die violent
    deaths. The struggle of mankind to survive almost always ends with
    violence. In the new era of the twenty-first century, humanity must be
    guided by the overriding principle that killing is never acceptable or
    justified--under any circumstance. Unless men realize this, unless they
    widely promote and deeply implant the understanding that violence can
    never be used to advocate one's beliefs, they will have learned nothing
    from the bitter lessons of the twentieth century.



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    Perhaps the best way to understand human nature fully and to
    know a nation completely short of going into a formal study of
    psychology, sociology and history, is to study Literature. Through
    Literature, people learn the innermost feelings and thoughts of people –
    the truest and most real part of themselves. Thus, men gain an
    understanding not only for others, but more importantly, of themselves
    and of life itself.
    Sometimes, people may have ideas and values that they wished
    to pass on in order to form attitudes. At other times, it may be because
    they wanted to spread knowledge and information which is worth
    recording and remembering. In this way, truth is reserved.
    Today, the real struggle of the twenty-first century is neither
    between civilizations, nor between religions. It will be between violence
    and nonviolence. It will be between barbarity and civilization in the
    truest sense of the word.
    This thought was supported by Hick(1988) when he said that
    Gandhi was indeed a living paradox, both extraordinarily attractive and
    yet powerfully dominating, and in admiring him people must be aware of
    both sides of his character. His moral insights were so strong and
    uncompromising that he imposed them upon his followers by the sheer
    force of conviction. This force arose from the fact that Gandhi lived what



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    Republic of the Philippines


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    he taught. He never taught an insight or made a moral demand that he
    had not lived out in his own life. Once, when asked by a foreign visitor
    what his message was, he replied “My life is my message‖. A proof that
    he, indeed, taught what he preached.
    Obviously, one reason why Gandhi is so important and
    remembered today is that he was the first great example of a typically
    modern phenomenon, the political saint as most writers call him. In
    addition, Hick mentioned that before the rise of democracy, people
    generally had no political power therefore, responsibility, and saintliness
    typically took the form either of acts of individual charity or of a life of
    secluded prayer and meditation.
    Gandhi‟s thinking was ahead of his own time and stays alive
    today in our time. Underlying all this is Gandhi‟s impregnable faith in the
    possibility of a radically better human future if only men will learn to trust
    the power of non-violent openness to others and to the deeper humanity
    within us all. To most people this seems impossible. But Gandhi‟s great
    legacy is that his life has certainly shown that, with true dedication, non-
    violence is possible in the world as it is.
    In the same premise, Martin Luther King, Jr. as an unknown
    quantity was gaining fast recognition for the same reason as Ghandi
    According to Dear (2012), certainly, no one expected him to emerge as



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    Republic of the Philippines
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    a Moses-like tower of strength. No one imagined he would invoke
    Gandhi‟s method of nonviolent resistance in Christian language as the
    basis for the boycott. But from day one, he was a force to be reckoned
    with. This is in reference to what Dr. King did during the rise of strike in
    a certain bus company in Montgomery.
    With the help of Bayard Rustin and Glenn Smiley of the
    Fellowship of Reconciliation, Dr. King articulated a methodology of
    nonviolence that still rings true. It is an ethic of nonviolent resistance
    that is also a strategy of hope that can help people today in the
    thousands of Montgomery-like movements around the world.
    Dr. King outlined his way of nonviolence and taught these six
    essential ingredients of active nonviolence until the day he died. First,
    nonviolence is the way of the strong; Second, the goal of nonviolence is
    redemption and reconciliation; Third, nonviolence seek to defeat evil,
    not people; Fourth, nonviolence includes a willingness to accept
    suffering without retaliation, to accept blows from the opponent without
    striking back; Fifth, nonviolence avoids not only external physical
    violence but also internal violence of spirit. It practices agape/ love in
    action, and sixth, nonviolence is based on the conviction that the
    universe is on the side of justice.



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    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


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    The core principle explained why, for King, nonviolence was “the
    morally excellent way”. As he boldly expanded his campaign from
    Montgomery to Atlanta, Albany and eventually Birmingham, he
    demonstrated six basic steps of nonviolent action that could be applied
    to any nonviolent movement for social change. King stressed that every
    campaign of nonviolence usually undergoes these basic stages toward
    justice, and they are worth the reader‟s consideration: Information
    gathering, education, personal commitment, negotiations, direct actions;
    and reconciliation.
    Dr. King‟s principle and methodology of nonviolence outlined a
    path to social change that still holds true to this day.
    Also, Dr. King‟s essays and speeches are characterized with of
    wisdom. His writings harnesses profound emotional power for purposes
    of social action. Within the pages of these works surfaces a collection of
    gems, reflecting deep philosophy and unique expressions.
    The wisdom embodied in the selected works of Mahatma Gandhi
    and the selected works of Martin Luther King, Jr could help the
    Vietnamese students re-examine their lives and values when they
    become aware of their genuine philosophical dimension. Their writings
    could describe habits that define the Vietnamese attitude towards life in
    general and towards specific actions in particular. They may rightly be



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    Republic of the Philippines
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    regarded as modifiers of human acts, influencing their deep motivations.
    They are intertwined in the raw materials of the social development of a
    Vietnamese student as a person existing in a community of people.
    They lend support certainly to the efforts of nation building.
    With these thoughts in mind, the researcher as an English
    teacher at Thai Nguyen University of Education is deeply motivated to
    explore and undertake an analysis of how nonviolence is reflected in the
    selected works of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. and gain
    honest implications on the teaching of nonviolence that may be drawn
    from the analysis which shall benefit Vietnamese students.
    1.2. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDIES
    This study is an analysis of nonviolence gleaned in the selected
    works of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. and the
    identification of the teachings on nonviolence that may be drawn from
    the analysis which shall benefit Vietnam students.
    Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions:
    1. What is the historical root of nonviolence in India and America.
    2. How is nonviolence dealt with in the selected works of Mahatma
    Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.?
    3. What humanitarian issues are given focus on each of the selections?



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


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    4. What literary devices are used by the writers in projecting the
    humanitarian issues particularly nonviolence?
    5. What teachings on nonviolence maybe drawn from the analysis which
    shall benefit Vietnamese students?
    1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    The aptness of literary analysis as an essential part of a research
    study is highlighted in terms of its importance to a number of individuals.
    Therefore, it is vital to expound how this study is beneficial to academic
    managers, college instructors of literature, students of literature and
    linguistics sand other researchers.
    The academic managers can utilize this study as a frame of
    reference when they prepare developmental priorities, programs,
    projects and policies in the educational institutions to ensure that the
    practice of nonviolence can access the academe and spawn nonviolent-
    related activities in the curricula.
    College instructors of literature may use this analysis as one of
    their methodologies in teaching literature to raise students‟ awareness
    on nonviolence and develop their students‟ appreciation and sense of
    value in order to guide and allow them to crystallize and synthesize
    what philosophy of life is best to learn and to live by.



    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
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    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines
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    Students of literature and linguistics realize the significance of
    nonviolence and may be inspired to treat literature as a work of art s as
    well as inspire them to engage in literary analysis related to non-violent
    resistance
    Further research can utilize this study‟s results on the issue of
    school violence education in Vietnam.
    Further research on non-violent struggle can be gleaned from a
    number of works of Viet Nam contemporary literature.
    1.4. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
    This study analyzes the philosophy of nonviolence as embodied
    in the selected literary pieces of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther
    King, Jr. pointing out the events and situations which show the
    teachings on nonviolence that maybe drawn from the analysis that may
    benefit the Vietnamese students. Likewise, this paper tries to present
    the historical root of nonviolence in India and the United States; the
    humanitarian issues given focus on each of the selections, and the
    literary devices used by the writers in projecting the humanitarian issues
    particularly nonviolence.
    This study employed the qualitative method of research in
    analyzing Gandhi‟s and King‟s concept of nonviolence in the
    representative literary works chosen. Likewise, this analysis made use



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    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


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    of the sociological and philosophical approaches as the bases for
    analysis. In particular, the sociological approach is supported by
    Teixeira‟s Theory of Nonviolence, while the philosophical approach is
    supported by Holmes‟ Theory of Nonviolence. Other approaches in
    literary criticism that may be employed in the analysis like the Formalist
    Criticism, Biographical Criticism, Historical Criticism, and Psychological
    Criticism are not part of this study.
    This paper also involved content analysis, which is a systematic
    technique in analyzing message content and message handling. The
    data analysis in this research centered on pattern seeking and the
    extraction of meaning from Gandhi‟s and King‟s selected literary
    narrative or image data. Much effort was focused on the task of
    recording data or making notes through concepts and categories;
    altering or creating new codes or more subtle categories; linking and
    combining abstract concepts; extracting the essence; organizing
    meaning; creating theory from emerging themes; writing an
    understanding; and drawing conclusions.
    The essential features in the treatment of materials were
    considered by the researcher in the conduct of this study. The general
    rules cited by Stott (2014) as regards the seven standards a piece of



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    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines
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    literature should abide to in order to be considered literary guided in the
    selection of works under study.
    The representative literary works were analyzed The Story of My
    Experiments with Truth, Harijan and Young India and The Montgomery
    Bus Boycott, Letter from Birmingham Jail by Mahatma Gandhi and I
    Have a Dream by Martin Luther King, Jr. From these literatures, readers
    will be able to see in them the seeds of all these two writers‟ most
    important teachings. The said selections were chosen because of their
    correlation with the cited themes; the humanitarian issues given focus in
    the selections; the literary devices which helped in unveiling their
    concept of nonviolence; and the teachings on nonviolence that may be
    drawn from the analysis.




    THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam




    BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
    Republic of the Philippines


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    CHAPTER II
    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
    This chapter is presented with the view of identifying the
    constructs of the study.
    2.1. CONCEPTUAL LITERATURE
    The review of the conceptual literature yields four types of
    constructs, which are used in the analysis and interpretation of the
    literary pieces dissected. These constructs include: Literature and
    Philosophy of Nonviolence, Mahatma Gandhi and his Significant
    Works, Martin Luther King, Jr. and his Significant Works, Humanitarian
    Issues, Literary Devices and Historical and Philosophical Approaches
    in Literary Criticism.
    Mahatma Gandhi and his Significant Works. Mohandas
    Karamchand Gandhi, commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi Father
    of Nation, was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-
    ruled India.
    Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to
    independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and
    freedom across the world.
    The son of a senior government official, Gandhi was born and
    raised in a Bania community in coastal Gujarat, and trained in law in



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    Republic of the Philippines
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    London. Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim
    and Hindu Indians in South Africa, using new techniques of non-violent
    civil disobedience that he developed. Returning to India in 1915, he set
    about organizing peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. A lifelong
    opponent of "communalism", he reached out widely to all religious
    groups. He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining status
    of the Caliphate. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress

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