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    THẠC SĨ The taxonomic study of foliicolous lichenized fungi in Chu Yang Sin national park of

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  6. The taxonomic study of foliicolous lichenized fungi in Chu Yang Sin national park of

    I. Introduction . 1
    II. Review of literatures 4
    1. Foliicolous lichens studies in Vietnam . 4
    2. Chu Yang Sin national park 4
    III. Materials and methods 8
    IV. Taxonomy . 9
    1. Key to foliicolous lichen genera in Chu Yang Sin nation park
    2. Brief description of genera and their respective species
    reported from Chu Yang Sin National Park 10
    1) Arthonia 10
    Arthonia cyanea var. cyanea . 10
    2) Bacidina 12
    Bacidina apiahica . 12
    3) Byssoloma . 14
    Byssoloma chlorinum 15
    Byssoloma subdiscordans var. subdiscordans 16
    Byssoloma vanderystii . 17
    4) Calopadia 19
    Calopadia puiggarii 20
    Calopadia subcoerulescens . 21
    5) Chroodiscus 23
    Chroodiscus mirificus . 24
    6) Coenogonium 25
    Coenogonium dilucidum . 26
    Coenogonium disciforme . 27
    7) Echinoplaca 29
    Echinoplaca epiphylla . 30Echinoplaca pellicula 31
    Echinoplaca tetrapla . 32
    8) Fellhanera . 34
    Fellhanera bouteillei . 35
    Fellhanera emarginata 36
    Fellhanera rhapidophylli 37
    Fellhanera sublecanorina . 38
    9) Mazosia . 40
    Mazosia dispersa . 41
    Mazosia phyllosema . 42
    10) Porina . 44
    Porina alba 45
    Porina atriceps . 46
    Porina conica . 47
    Porina nitidula 48
    Porina rubentior 50
    11) Sporopodium . 51
    Sporopodium phyllocharis 52
    Sporopodium xantholeucum 53
    12) Strigula 55
    Strigula nitidula . 56
    13) Tricharia . 57
    Tricharia vainioi . 58
    V. Conclusion . 60
    VI. Acknowledgement 62
    VII. References . 63
    Fig. 1. Location of Chu Yang Sin national park in Vietnam 6
    Fig. 2. Map of Chu Yang Sin national park . 7
    Fig. 3. Habit and ascospores of Arthonia cyanea var. cyanea f.
    cyanea 11
    Fig. 4. Habit and ascospores of Bacidina apiahica 13
    Fig. 5. Habit and ascospores of foliicolous species of Byssoloma 18
    Fig. 6. Habit and ascospores of foliicolous species of Calopadia . 22
    Fig. 7. Habit and ascospores of Chroodiscus argillaceus 23
    Fig. 8. Habit and ascospores of foliicolous species of Coenogonium
    Fig. 9. Habit and ascospores of foliicolous species of Echinoplaca 33
    Fig. 10. Habit and ascospores of foliicolous species of Fellhanera 39
    Fig. 11. Habit and ascospores of foliicolous species of Mazosia . 43
    Fig. 12. Habit and ascospores of foliicolous species of Porina 49
    Fig. 13. Habit and ascospores of species of Porina rubentior . 50
    Fig. 14. Habit and ascospores of foliicolous species of Sporopodium
    Fig. 15. Habit and ascospores of species of Strigula nitidula 55
    Fig. 16. Habit and ascospores of species of Tricharia vainioi . 57
    Table 1. The list of orders, families, genera and species in Chu Yang
    Sin national park 61 Abstract
    The taxonomic study of foliicolous lichenized fungi in
    Chu Yang Sin national park of Vietnam
    Thi Thuy Nguyen
    Department of Environmental Education & Science
    The Graduate School
    Sunchon National University
    Supervisor: Prof. Jae-Seoun Hur
    Co-supervisor: Dr. Yogesh Joshi
    Foliicolous lichens which known abundant in tropical
    regions. While the foliicolous lichen flora was discovered well
    in many regions in the world but there were no many
    publications deal with the foliicolous lichens from Vietnam.
    Twenty eight species belonging to thirteen genera was
    recognized from 415 specimens collected from Chu Yang Sin –
    a national park located at the Central Highland of Vietnam.
    Among them, Byssoloma vanderystii Sérus., Coenogonium
    disciforme Papong et al. and Fellhanera emarginata Lücking.
    were first time reported from Vietnam. The first fertile
    specimens of Coenogonium disciforme Papong et al. was
    observed and described in detailed. The key to the genera and key to species of the genera are given. Each species was
    described in diagnostic characters, chemistry and distribution.
    Key words: Taxonomy, foliicolous lichenized fungi, Vietnam,
    Chu Yang Sin national park 1
    Foliicolous lichens are lichens that grow on the living leaves
    of angiosperms, fern fonds, phyllodes, phylloclades and young
    bamboo culms. Generally they occur on the leaves that shed off in 2-
    5 years or stayed longer (e.g. Agave and palm leaves), except few
    taxa which were found to grow on annually deciduous leaves.
    Majority of the foliicolous lichens were found on the upper side of
    the leaves i.e. epiphyllous, but few also grow on the lower side i.e.
    hypophyllous. Foliicolous lichens generally prefer growing over
    leaves of lower branches which not only enjoyed the partial shade of
    the over growing branches but also had a more humid environment
    than others. Based on their substrate specificity, they can be divided
    into three groups:
    1) Eufoliicolous lichens: they grow and reproduce entirely
    on the leaves and have a crustose thallus that is tightly
    adnate to the substrate.
    2) Facultative foliicolous lichens: they usually grow on
    barks, petioles and twigs but exceptionally on leaves.
    3) Pseudofoliicolous (indifferent or ubiquitous) lichens:
    besides growing on leaves they can grow on different
    substrates, such as rock, bark, soil etc.
    The diversity and density of foliicolous lichens is abundant in
    the tropical rainforests of Central and South America, Africa and
    Southeast Asia, due to availability of optimum temperature, humidy,
    sunlight and shade throughout the year. Besides tropical rainforests,
    they are also reported from subtropical and temperate rainforests
    having humid areas, but the diversity and density in the subtropical
    and temperate regions is less in comparison to tropical regions
    because of lack of suitable macro- and micro- climatic conditions
    responsible for the luxuriance growth of these lichens. 2
    These lichens are one of the most abundant epiphytes in
    tropical rain forests, henceforth the highest diversity of foliicolous
    lichens is found in tropical regions, especially the primary tropical
    rainforests which are not affected by anthropogenic disturbance.
    More than 800 foliicolous lichen taxa are known from the world.
    However, most of the publications mentioning about foliicolous
    lichens have came from Neotropics, Valdivian and African
    Paleotropic regions, but very few studies were carried out in the
    Eastern Paleotropics.
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam – a country situated in South
    East Asia – with high temperature, high average annual rainfall and
    large area of primary tropical rain forests is suitable for the
    colonization of tropical lichens, especially foliicolous lichens. The
    lichen flora of Vietnam is not well worked out and most of the work
    on Vietnamese lichens was done by foreigners during their trip to
    Vietnam. Krempelhuber (1873) was the first person to report lichens
    from Vietnam, followed by Müller (1891), Harmand (1928), Abbayes
    (1964) and Tixier (1966). However, Vĕzda (1977) was the first
    person to cite foliicolous lichens from Vietnam, while making a
    review on previous publications dealing with lichens of Vietnam.
    Aptroot & Sparrius (2006) made a first checklist of lichen flora of
    Vietnam and included 32 foliicolous lichen species within it. Later
    on, Papong et al. (2007) increased the tally of foliicolous lichens to
    Nguyen et al. (2009, 2010) during her studies on foliicolous
    lichen flora of Vietnam, reported 14 additional species which were
    new to Vietnam lichen flora and raises the tally of foliicolous lichens
    to 84. Nguyen et al. (2010) for the first time also reported fertile
    specimen of Coenogonium disciforme Papong, Boonpr. & Lücking
    from Chu Yang Sin national park of Vietnam. Previously only fertile
    specimen of this species was known from Thailand (Papong et al.
    2007). Since, there were no expert focusing on this group of lichen in 3
    Vietnam, and also number of publications and numbers of species
    recorded from this place were very few, this idea led the author to
    work on foliicolous lichen flora of Vietnam.
    As far as Vietnam is concerned, it is a very big country
    located in the Asian wet tropics with long beach and two large deltas
    having high annual rainfall making conditions favorable for the
    growth foliicolous lichens, henceforth it is bit difficult for the author
    to explore entire country within 2 years of time for her Master’s
    thesis, that’s why she has focused her study on foliicolous lichen
    diversity of Chu Yang Sin national park from where she reported 28
    species belonging to 13 genera of which 6 were new to Vietnamese
    lichen flora. Key to the genera and species are provided along with
    brief description of all the species reported from this national park. 4
    1. Foliicolous lichen studies in Vietnam
    In Vietnam, the lichen flora is not discovered well. Some
    records were mentioned in some publication of lichens by some
    authors in the world. The first species reported of lichens in Vietnam
    was in 1873 by Krempelhuber (Krembelhubner, 1873). Following by
    Müller (1891), Harmand (1928), Abbayes (1964) and Tixier (1966),
    many others species growing on other substrates were reported. Until
    1977, Vĕzda made a review on the previous publication dealt with
    lichens flora of Vietnam and cited only foliicolous lichens. In his
    paper, Vĕzda reported 44 species, increasing the total number of
    foliicolous lichens from Vietnam to 63 species in that time. In 2006,
    Aptroot & Sparrius (Aptroot & Sparrius, 2006) made a checklist of
    lichen flora of Vietnam including 32 foliicolous lichen species. In
    2007, Papong et al. (Papong et al., 2007) counted number of total
    foliicolous lichens species of Vietnam was 70 species. Until 2010,
    Nguyen et al. reported 6 new records of foliicolous lichens in
    Vietnam, increase the total species of foliicolous lichen to 76 species.
    2. Chu Yang Sin national park
    Vietnam, a country located in the Asian wet tropics with long
    beach and two large deltas has high annual rainfall that is predictable
    of the presence of very high diversity of foliicolous lichens.
    Central Highlands or Western Highlands is a highland located
    in the central part of Vietnam, including five provinces (Daklak, Dak
    Nong, Gia Lai, Kon Tum and Lam Dong provinces). It lays on a
    series of contiguous plateaus namely Kon Tum, Mdrak, Daklak, Mo
    Nong, Lam Vien and Di Linh plateaus that are surrounded by the
    high mountain ranges called Truong Son.
    Chu Yang Sin national park which is located in Krong Bong
    and Lak Districts of Daklak Province has forests of enormous 5
    significance for biodiversity, conservation and protection. Having an
    area of 58,947 ha, this is the largest protected area on the Da Lat
    Plateau. The park was first designated as a nature reserve in early
    1986 and then later upgraded to national park in 2005.
    Chu Yang Sin is a system of mountains running from Eastern
    North to Western South, and includes Chu Ba Nak Mountain (1,858
    m high), Chu Hae’le Mountain (1.204 m), Chu Pan Phan Mountain
    (1.185 m), Chu Drung Yang Mountain (1,812 m), Chu Yang Sieng
    Mountain (1,128 m), Yang Kling Mountain (1,271 m), Chu Yang
    Saone Mountain (1,176 m), Chu Hrang Kreou Mountain (1.071) and
    Chu Yang Sin Mountain (2,105 m). There are many small and narrow
    valleys but also some flat valleys lying along streams. The elevation
    of the park lies between 450 – 2,405 m.
    The broadleaved evergreen forest is the dominant vegetation
    type in the park with an area of more than 30,000 ha. Lowland semi-
    evergreen forests which are characterized by dominance of
    Lagerstroemia calyculata and Terminalia nigrovenulosa and lowland
    evergreen forests characterized by dominance of Hopea odorata,
    Dipterocarpus alatus, Dipterocarpus turbinatus are distributed below
    900 m. At elevation above 900 m, submontane and montane
    evergreen forests dominated by members of Fagaceae and Lauraceae
    are widely distributed. Montane evergreen forests in this region are
    characterized mainly by the presence of gymnosperms, such as Pinus
    spp., Podocarpus imbricatus and Fokienia hodginsii. On the ridge
    line, elfin forest formations dominated by Lyonia annamensis, Lyonia
    ovalifolia and the dwarf bamboo Arundinaria sp. are distributed.
    Besides this, 65 mammal species are recorded in this park, of
    which 12 species are considered globally endangered. 250 bird
    species have been confirmed, including 15 threatened and endemic
    species. The park also supports impressive richness of reptiles and 6
    amphibians with 112 species discovered. Although the fish diversity
    is poorly understood, but 81 fish species have been recorded so far.
    FIG. 1. Location of Chu Yang Sin National Park in Vietnam.
    However, until now, no significant study regarding occurrence
    of lichens with in this national park was made by any worker.
    Therefore, it is the prime time that lichens, especially foliicolous
    lichens, from this national park should be documented and utilized
    for the development of a sustainable forest management program.7
    FIG. 2. Map of Chu Yang Sin national park and the locate of the collection ()
    This study deals with the identification of foliicolous lichens
    collected from Chu Yang Sin national park – a national park located
    in Central Highlands of Vietnam. Totally 415 specimens was
    checked, 28 species belonging to 13 genera was identified. Key to
    genera and keys for species of each genus which has more than one
    species that found in this park was provided. Each species was also
    described in detailed. 8
    Approximately 500 leaf samples bearing various foliicolous
    lichen species were collected and examined. Sampling for foliicolous
    lichens was performed following the methods outlined by Lücking &
    Lücking (1996). The specimens were collected from Chu Yang Sin
    national park in the month of February and July, 2010. Because of
    biodiversity act and security reasons, the collections were only
    permitted to carry out in a small area of this national park (unit 1180).
    The leaves bearing foliicolous lichens were cut or plugged out
    and then pressed and air dried. Specimens are deposited in the
    Korean Lichen Research Herbarium (KoLRI) of Sunchon National
    University (SNU).
    Identification of the foliicolous lichen specimens was based
    on examination of morphological and anatomical features.
    Morphology of thallus, vegetative structures, ascomata and
    conidiomata were examined under Nikon SMZ 645
    stereomicroscope. Hand cut sections for studying anatomical
    characters were examined under a Nikon Eclipse E200 microscope.
    Beside morphological and anatomical structures, the color
    reactions of different parts were tested by the methods described by
    Yoshimura (1974): K (10% aqueous KOH solution), I (Lugol’s
    solution), KI (10% KOH followed by Lugol’s solution).
    Microcrystallography and thin layer chromatography (Culberson
    1972) was also carried out to identify the chemical compounds met
    within the species that needs those tests for identification.

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