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    THẠC SĨ Analysis of boundary conditions and concept design for port Dong Lam, Thua Thien-Hue Province, Vietnam

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  6. Analysis of boundary conditions and concept design for port Dong Lam, Thua Thien-Hue Province, Vietnam

    28/05/2010 I MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    PREFACE
    What lies in front of you is the result of the Master Thesis, the final step before graduation
    in Civil Engineering at Delft University of Technology (DUT). This project is about the
    analysis and modelling of boundary conditions and the conceptual design of Port Dong Lam,
    Thua Thien-Hue Province, Vietnam. The work was executed in cooperation with Royal
    Haskoning - departments Rotterdam, The Netherlands and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Royal Haskoning provided me a working space and put all their information, knowledge and
    advice at my disposal, for which I am thankful. As well, I want to show my gratefulness to
    the members of my graduation committee for guiding me during the process:
    Prof. ir. H. Ligteringen Delft University of Technology, chair Ports & Waterways
    Dr. ir. J. Van de Graaff Delft University of Technology, chair Coastal Engineering
    Ir. D.J.R. Walstra Delft University of Technology, chair Coastal Engineering
    Ir. M. Westra Royal Haskoning (NL), department Coastal & Rivers
    Ir. T. Elzinga Royal Haskoning (NL), department Maritime
    Besides I want to thank my overseas supervisors in Vietnam for providing information and
    advice:
    Ir. M. Coopman Royal Haskoning (VN), department Maritime
    Ir. M. Klabbers Royal Haskoning (VN), department Maritime
    Last but not least I want to show my appreciation to my friends, roommates and fellow
    students. Special thanks go to my family, Mischa and my close friends Loek, Paul, Cyriel and
    Jan. Without their support the mountain to climb would have been a few steps higher.
    At the end of this project I can say that I have really expanded my knowledge and skills,
    both technically and pragmatically. Moreover, my self-awareness has reached a higher level
    which is priceless with regard to my future. The struggle to achieve this was tough and I
    would like to quote a fellow student to describe this journey: 28/05/2010 II MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    Laat ik het afstudeerwerk vergelijken met een tocht over de Andes van Chili naar Argentinië.
    Vooraf lijkt het een prachtig mooie tocht te worden, het begin loopt relaxed, maar er komt
    ongetwijfeld een pas waar niet overheen te komen is. Dagen van sneeuwstormen en
    psychologische ellende zorgen ervoor dat we geen steek verder komen. Maar naarmate het
    berglandschap bekender terrein wordt, worden nieuwe paden zichtbaar. Met de weinige
    ervaring stuiten we nog op een aantal tegenslagen die we van tevoren niet hadden
    voorzien, maar omdat we goede bagage hebben en een portie kennis over de elementen
    lukt het ons met gezond verstand om een weg te banen door de Cordilleras
    (Andesgebergte). Aangekomen in Argentinië staat vervolgens een vliegtuig klaar, die kun je
    nemen, naar welke plek op aarde dan ook. Bas van Son (2009)
    Wouter Broersen Delft, 28 mei 2010 28/05/2010 III MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    SUMMARY
    Introduction
    Dong Lam Cement Factory is developing a new clinker plant in Thua Thien-Hue Province,
    Vietnam. The clinker has to be exported towards Ho Chi Minh City, where it is grinded into
    cement and used for the construction industry. For the clinker production coal is needed
    and has to be imported. To make the in- and export possible a new dedicated seaport is
    required to allow for 15,000 dwt clinker vessels and 7,000 dwt coal vessels.
    From the production plant, the clinker bulk is transported to a storage facility by truck.
    From here the material is transported to the seaport by means of a conveyor belt. The coal
    is transported by the same modalities but vice versa.
    In the first phase (up to 2015) about 2 million ton per year bulk material is expected to be
    handled at this port. In the second phase (2015 - 2035) this amounts about 4 million ton per
    year of bulk material. Following the increasing demand for concrete, a doubling of the
    production is expected in 2035. This results in a throughput of almost 8 million ton per year
    in the third project phase (2035 and up).
    Objective
    The objective is to design a port with sufficient capacity to handle the predicted cargo flow
    and which offers acceptable conditions for the ships to enter. The effective berth and
    hinterland capacity have to be determined such, that turnaround times are within limits. To
    create safe conditions, the vessels need to have enough space for manouevring in the wet
    port area. These manoeuvres can be seriously disturbed by wind, wave, currents and
    siltation on the long term. To ensure the workability of the port these effects have to be
    limited.
    Analysis
    Port capacity
    To determine the effective berth capacity the queuing theory is applied. In phase 1 and 2
    one clinker and one coal berth satisfy with effective capacities of respectively 700 and 175
    t/h respectively. In phase 3 two clinker and two coal berths are needed with the same
    loading/unloading rates. Clinker is loaded with a radial loader and coal is unloaded with a
    pneumatic unloader.
    Boundary conditions
    To get insight in the environmental boundary conditions, field data is collected and
    analysed thoroughly. In Vietnam the wind climate is governed by the South-East Asian
    monsoon system, with a dominant SE direction and strong NNE winds. The wave climate is
    directly influenced by the wind climate and shows a similar pattern. With regard to extreme
    conditions, once a year a tropical storm lands in the vicinity of the port site. These storms
    are accompanied by strong wave conditions, coming from E to SE direction. 28/05/2010 IV MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    Having frequent waves from the NNE and SE, littoral transport is generated in north- and
    southward direction. Nevertheless, the northward transport is clearly dominant. Currents
    are heading SE for most of the time.
    Port dimensions
    To reduce the breakwater length, it is decided for the tugs to make fast outside the
    breakwaters. As a consequence, almost 4% of downtime can be expected, since tugs cannot
    operate when Hs ≥ 2m. Once the vessel has entered the harbour the stopping manoeuvre
    can be started, which requires an inner channel length of 290 m. The turning circle allows
    for the turning manoeuvre for which a radius of 290 m is reserved. In the mooring basin,
    ships are forced into the right position to make safe berthing possible. This requires a width
    of 210 m and a quay length of 652 m. Note that these basic dimensions are determined for
    project phase 3 (4 berths), considering a 15,000 dwt design vessel.
    Layouts and evaluation
    Four different layouts are developed for phase 3 of the project. Two of them are dismissed
    in an early stage, because of unfavourable conditions. The other two layouts – the 'coastal'
    and 'offshore' alternative, are evaluated with a cost-value approach. In this approach the
    value of each design is assessed by means of a MCA.
    The following criteria are taken into consideration: navigation, tranquillity at berth, coastal
    impact, sedimentation, ease of cargo handling, safety and flexibility. Regarding navigation
    and wind, wave and current hindrance, no significant differences are found. It turns out
    that the most important difference is found in the coastal impact. The coastal alternative
    will cause erosion along 7.5 km of coastline with a maximum retreat of 100 m. Instead, the
    offshore alternative affects 'only' 3 km with maximum retreat of 70 m.
    The other element of the cost-value approach is the costs. The investment costs for the
    coastal alternative are 64.1 M$, which include the dredging works, breakwater and quay
    construction. The costs for the offshore port amount 77.5 M$, which entails the dredging
    works, breakwater, jetty quay and trestle construction. The relative low costs for the
    coastal alternative are achieved by applying the cut-and-fill balance; the dredged sand is
    used as breakwater foundation. Maintenance dredging costs are 1.75 M$ and 0.9 M$ for
    respectively the coastal and offshore alternative.
    To finish the cost-value approach the value/costs ratio is taken for both port layouts. The
    coastal alternative (1.11) turns out to be a better port layout than the offshore alternative
    (0.95).
    Downtime assessment
    The total downtime amounts 5.4 %, which is entails the following contributions:
    ã Wave height exceedance tugs: 3.9%
    ã Wind speed exceedance moored vessels 1.5% 28/05/2010 V MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    Figure 95: final port design. 28/05/2010 VI MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam 28/05/2010 VII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    CONTENTS
    PREFACE I
    SUMMARY III
    TABLE OF FIGURES . XI
    TABLE OF TABLES .XV
    TABLE OF EQUATIONS . XVII
    1 INTRODUCTION 3
    1.1 STUDY BACKGROUND . 3
    1.1.1 Port location . 4
    1.1.2 Metocean conditions 4
    1.2 STUDY SCOPE 5
    1.3 STUDY APPROACH AND CONTENTS . 6
    1.3.1 Data collection 6
    1.3.2 Modelling 6
    1.3.3 Transport capacities . 6
    1.3.4 Port dimensions 6
    1.3.5 Layout design and concept selection 6
    1.4 MISCELLANEOUS 7
    2 ENVIRONMENTAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 8
    2.1 INTRODUCTION 8
    2.2 COASTAL CHARACTERISTICS 8
    2.3 CLIMATE 8
    2.4 TOPOGRAPHY 9
    2.5 BATHYMETRY 10
    2.5.1 Cross-shore profile 11
    2.6 WATER LEVELS 12
    2.6.1 Tide . 12
    2.6.2 Water level setup 13
    2.6.3 Sea level rise . 18
    2.6.4 Conclusion . 18
    2.7 WIND DATA 19
    2.7.1 Background . 19
    2.7.2 Normal conditions 20
    2.7.3 Extreme conditions . 25
    2.7.4 Conclusion . 27
    2.8 WAVE DATA OFFSHORE . 28
    2.8.1 Normal conditions 28
    2.8.2 Extreme conditions . 34
    2.8.3 Conclusion . 37
    2.9 WAVE DATA NEARSHORE . 38
    2.9.1 Normal conditions 39
    2.9.2 Extreme conditions . 41
    2.9.3 Conclusion . 46
    2.10 CURRENT DATA 48
    2.10.1 Wind-driven currents 49
    2.10.2 Tide driven currents 4928/05/2010 VIII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    2.10.3 Conclusion . 50
    2.11 SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS . 52
    2.11.1 Conclusion . 54
    2.12 COASTAL MORPHOLOGY 55
    2.12.1 TUNG (2001) . 55
    2.12.2 Littoral transport under normal conditions 56
    2.12.3 Littoral transport under extreme conditions . 58
    2.13 SOIL CONDITIONS . 62
    2.13.1 Conclusion . 64
    3 TRANSPORT CAPACITY . 65
    3.1 THROUGHPUT 65
    3.2 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 68
    3.3 TRANSPORT CAPACITIES . 69
    3.3.1 Berth assessment 69
    3.3.2 Conveyor belt 74
    3.3.3 Storage area 75
    3.3.4 Road 78
    3.3.5 Conclusion . 78
    4 BASIC PORT DIMENSIONS 79
    4.1 INTRODUCTION 79
    4.2 NORMAL CONDITIONS . 79
    4.3 DESIGN VESSEL 79
    4.4 WATER AREA . 80
    4.4.1 Approach channel . 80
    4.4.2 Turning Circle 85
    4.4.3 Mooring Basin . 86
    4.4.4 Quay length . 86
    4.5 CONCLUSION . 87
    5 ALTERNATIVE LAYOUTS . 88
    5.1 INTRODUCTION 88
    5.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . 88
    5.3 PORT LAYOUTS . 90
    5.3.1 Refinement of port layouts . 91
    5.4 MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS 96
    5.4.1 Navigation . 97
    5.4.2 Tranquility at berth . 97
    5.4.3 Coastal impact 100
    5.4.4 Sedimentation . 105
    5.4.5 Safety 108
    5.4.6 Flexibility . 109
    5.4.7 Result 109
    5.5 CAPITAL COSTS CALCULATION 111
    5.5.1 Coastal port . 111
    5.5.2 Offshore port . 119
    5.6 MAINTENANCE COSTS CALCULATION 126
    5.6.1 Coastal port . 126
    5.6.2 Offshore port . 126
    5.7 COST-VALUE APPROACH 128
    6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 12928/05/2010 IX MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    6.1 CONCLUSIONS . 129
    6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 130
    6.2.1 Data and modelling 130
    6.2.2 Port design 130
    7 REFERENCES . 131
    7.1 BOOKS . 131
    7.2 LECTURE NOTES . 131
    7.3 ARTICLES 131
    7.4 OTHER REPORTS 131
    7.5 MANUALS 131
    A. MONSOON AND TYPHOON BACKGROUND 134
    A.1 MONSOONS 134
    A.2 TYPHOONS . 134
    B. OTHER WIND AND WAVE SOURCES . 136
    B.1 WIND DATA FROM CON CO ISLAND . 136
    B.2 WAVE DATA FROM CON CO ISLAND . 137
    B.3 WAVE DATA FROM GLOBAL WAVE STATISTICS . 138
    C. TYPHOON GENERATED WIND AND WAVES 138
    C.1 WIND 138
    C.2 WAVES 141
    C.2.1 Calculation of maximum wave heights . 141
    C.2.2 Calculation of wave heights at port site . 143
    C.2.3 Example calculation 146
    D. EXTREME VALUE DISTRIBUTIONS . 149
    D.1 EXTREME WIND SPEEDS . 149
    D.2 EXTREME WAVE HEIGHTS – TYPHOON GENERATED 150
    D.3 EXTREME WAVE HEIGHTS – MONSOON GENERATED 152
    E. OFFSHORE CURRENTS 155
    E.1 WIND-DRIVEN . 155
    E.2 TIDE-DRIVEN . 156
    F. WAVE MODELLING 157
    F.1 GENERAL 157
    F.2 MODEL SETUP . 157
    F.2.1 Land boundary 157
    F.2.2 Computational grids . 158
    F.2.3 Bathymetry . 159
    F.3 MODEL INPUT . 159
    F.3.1 Hydrodynamic boundary conditions . 160
    F.3.2 Physical parameters . 161
    F.3.3 Numerical parameters 162
    F.4 CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION . 162
    F.5 MODEL OUTPUT 162
    F.5.1 Normal conditions 162
    F.5.2 Extreme conditions . 165
    G. MORPHOLOGICAL MODELLING 167
    G.1 GENERAL 16728/05/2010 X MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    G.2 CERC FORMULA 167
    G.2.1 General 167
    G.2.2 Calculation setup . 169
    G.2.3 Calculation of wave parameters . 169
    G.2.4 Calculation of shoaling and refraction factors 169
    G.2.5 Calculation of sediment transport . 170
    G.2.6 Calculation input and output 170
    G.3 MIKE LITPACK – LITDRIFT . 173
    G.3.1 General 173
    G.3.2 Hydrodynamic model 173
    G.3.3 Sediment transport model 173
    G.3.4 Model setup 174
    G.3.5 Model settings . 177
    G.3.6 Model input . 178
    G.3.7 Calibration and validation . 179
    G.3.8 Model output 179
    G.3.9 Sensitivity analysis 183
    G.4 MIKE LITPACK – LITLINE . 185
    G.4.1 General 185
    G.4.2 Model setup 185
    G.4.3 Model input . 187
    G.4.4 Calibration and validation . 189
    G.4.5 Model output 189
    H. CALCULATIONS ON BERTH CAPACITY . 190
    H.1 PHASE 1 . 190
    H.2 PHASE 2 . 191
    H.3 PHASE 3 . 192
    I. BREAKWATER CALCULATIONS . 193
    I.1 COASTAL PORT . 193
    I.2 OFFSHORE PORT . 195
    J. DREDGING COSTS 196
    J.1 CAPITAL DREDGING COSTS 196
    J.2 MAINTENANCE DREDGING COSTS – COASTAL PORT 197
    J.3 MAINTENANCE DREDGING COSTS – OFFSHORE PORT 19828/05/2010 XI MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    TABLE OF FIGURES
    Figure 1: planned port site in Google Earth image. 3
    Figure 2: transport system for clinker export and coal import. . 4
    Figure 3: rivers and lagoon system in Thua Thie- Hue province. 9
    Figure 4: bathymetry near Thua Thien-Hue Province obtained from C-map. 10
    Figure 5: bathymetry near port site obtained from C-map. . 10
    Figure 6: cross-shore C-C' . 11
    Figure 7: different water levels in a mixed tide. . 12
    Figure 8: measurement of the water level at the project site 13
    Figure 9: schematization of wind setup. 15
    Figure 10: schematization of the fetch for wind-setup calculation. . 15
    Figure 11: schematization of wave setup. 17
    Figure 12: calculation of wave setup 17
    Figure 13: extreme water level contributions. . 18
    Figure 14: Asian summer and winter monsoon system. 19
    Figure 15: typhoon Cecil, landed in Vietnam at the 15th of October, 1985. 20
    Figure 16: wind climate according to the China Sea Pilot 21
    Figure 17: NOAA wind roses for the six data locations. . 22
    Figure 18: wind rose (1). 23
    Figure 19: time series of wind speed in 1998. 24
    Figure 20: cumulative exceedance frequency versus wind speed. 25
    Figure 21: top 50 of tropical depressions hitting central Vietnam between 1959 and 2009. 26
    Figure 22: NOAA wave roses for the six data locations. . 29
    Figure 23: time series of wave height in 1998 30
    Figure 24: wave rose (wave height, direction and frequency). 31
    Figure 25: wave rose (wave period, direction and frequency). 32
    Figure 26: wave height versus frequency exceedance. 33
    Figure 27: Hs - Tp relation. . 34
    Figure 28: severe monsoon event in dec 1998. . 36
    Figure 29: wave model result for random wave condition. . 38
    Figure 30: offshore wave rose with schematized wave directions. Source: NOAA, location 18N;107.5E. . 39
    Figure 31: nearshore wave rose at 15 m water depth. 40
    Figure 32: cumulative probability of exceedance versus wave height for offshore and nearshore wave data. 41
    Figure 33: Typhoon ED (1990) coming from ESE (112.5º) direction and showing the dominant wave front. 43
    Figure 34: currents in the South China Sea. Source: UKHO (1978) 48
    Figure 35: locations of current measurements (about 600 m offshore). Source: TEDIPORT. 49
    Figure 36: current rose for vertical 2. Source: local measurement by TEDIPORT. . 50
    Figure 37: hydrographical survey area (drawing scale 1 : 50,000). 52
    Figure 38: bed sample of location MD9. 53
    Figure 39: net sediment transports along the coastal barrier from Thuan An inlet to Linh Thai. 55
    Figure 40: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport for 1/10 years typhoon condition. . 59
    Figure 41: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport for 1/50 years typhoon condition. . 59
    Figure 42: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport for 1/10 years monsoon condition. 59
    Figure 43: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport for 1/50 years monsoon condition. 59
    Figure 44: borehole locations for geotechnical survey. . 62
    Figure 45: geotechnical cross-section indicating four different soil layers. . 63
    Figure 46: throughput time scheme. 65
    Figure 47: transport system to and from the new sea port. 66
    Figure 48: schematized port system and the Erlang-k distribution. . 70
    Figure 49: example of a portal scraper. . 72 28/05/2010 XII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    Figure 50: example of a radial loader for clinker loading. 72
    Figure 51: example of a continuous unloader for coal unloading 73
    Figure 52: example of a stacker-reclaimer. 73
    Figure 53: example of a conveyor belt (non-enclosed). . 74
    Figure 54: triangular shape of storage areas. 75
    Figure 55: example of an open storage. 76
    Figure 56: example of a covered warehouse. 76
    Figure 57: road between production plant and Port Dong Lam. . 78
    Figure 58: make fast and pilot boarding outside the breakwater. . 81
    Figure 59: increase of drift angle during entering of the port. 82
    Figure 60: basic manoeuvring width of a sailing ship. . 83
    Figure 61: channel depth contributions. 85
    Figure 62: required space for operations in mooring basin. 86
    Figure 63: four port layouts. 91
    Figure 64: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport during 1/10 years typhoon . 92
    Figure 65: sediment transport during typhoon event - coastal port. 92
    Figure 66: sediment transport during monsoon event - coastal port. . 93
    Figure 67: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport during 1/10 years monsoon. 94
    Figure 68: sediment transport during monsoon and typhoon events - offshore port. 94
    Figure 69: diffraction around breakwater head – coastal port. . 98
    Figure 70: diffraction around breakwater head – offshore port. . 99
    Figure 71: coastal impact - coastal port. 100
    Figure 72: coastal erosion - coastal port. . 102
    Figure 73: coastal impact - offshore port. 103
    Figure 74: coastal erosion - offshore port. . 104
    Figure 75: siltation areas for coastal port. . 105
    Figure 76: cross-shore sediment distribution during 1/10 monsoon storm without and with coastline growth. 106
    Figure 77: siltation area for offshore port. 108
    Figure 78: possible port expansion - coastal port. . 109
    Figure 79: dredging works - coastal port. 111
    Figure 80: sand spit and land reclamation – coastal port. . 112
    Figure 81: cross-section of sand spit. . 112
    Figure 82: erosion profile for sandy beaches. 113
    Figure 83: longitudinal cross-section of the main breakwater (lower picture) and the secondary breakwater
    (upper picture). 114
    Figure 84: wave heights and water depths from SWAN model – coastal port. . 115
    Figure 85: cross-section 1 and 2 (founded on sand spit) – coastal port. . 116
    Figure 86: cross-sections 3 and 4 – coastal port. . 116
    Figure 87: example of a marginal quay. . 119
    Figure 88: dredging works - offshore port. 120
    Figure 89: sand spit - offshore port 120
    Figure 90: longitudinal cross-section of offshore breakwater. 121
    Figure 91: wave heights and water depths from SWAN model - offshore port. 122
    Figure 92: cross-sections 1 and 2 - offshore port. 123
    Figure 93: example of a jetty quay, connected to the land by a trestle . 125
    Figure 94: cost estimate offshore port. . 125
    Figure 95: final port design. . 129
    Figure 96: Asian summer and winter monsoon system. 134
    Figure 97: wind rose. Source: HMS, Con Co Island. . 136
    Figure 98: wave rose. Source: HMS of Con Co Island. 137
    Figure 99: tabular wave data from Global Wave Statistics, Northeast direction. 138
    Figure 100: top 50 of tropical depressions hitting central Vietnam between 1959 and 2009. 139
    Figure 101: dimensions of cyclone winds. . 142 28/05/2010 XIII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    Figure 102: F/R' versus Umax (m/s). 142
    Figure 103: ratio of wave height at distant r to wave height at eye radius R. . 144
    Figure 104: determination of distant r between landfall and port site. . 145
    Figure 105: definition of X, X' and Y. 145
    Figure 106: example calculation: determination of Hr / HR. 148
    Figure 107: Weibull distribution fitted to wind speeds of 33 m/s and up. 150
    Figure 108: distinction between tropical storms and typhoons. 151
    Figure 109: Weibull distribution fitted to wave heights of 6.61 m and up. . 152
    Figure 110: Weibull fitted to wave height of 3.3 m and up. . 154
    Figure 111: currents in the South China Sea. Source: UKHO (1978). . 155
    Figure 112: computational grids used in the SWAN model 158
    Figure 113: land boundary, computational grid and bathymetry for grid 1. 159
    Figure 114: k-factor per wave height and direction. 164
    Figure 115: grid 2 and its bathymetry. . 164
    Figure 116: wave attenuation for wave condition 20, grid 2. 165
    Figure 117: grid 1 (most coarse) in modelling of extreme waves. . 166
    Figure 118: wave power P per unit beach length (left) and the alongshore component of P (right). 168
    Figure 119: linear relation between Sx ( I
    l
    ) and P ( P
    l
    ) based on measurements. 168
    Figure 120: bathymetric survey by TEDIPORT. . 175
    Figure 121: cross-shore coastal profile. . 175
    Figure 122: fall velocity by Van Rijn (1984) and Delft Hydraulics. 177
    Figure 123: measured and approximated tidal current velocity. . 179
    Figure 124: measured and approximated water level. 179
    Figure 125: wave height, wave period and sediment transport in 1998. . 181
    Figure 126: wave height, wave period and sediment transport (m3/s) between 1997 and 2009. 182
    Figure 127: accumulated sediment transport (m3) from 1997 to 2009. 183
    Figure 128: results of the sensitivity analysis. 184
    Figure 129: LITLINE model setup with indicated boundary conditions. . 186
    Figure 130: offshore port schematization. . 187
    Figure 131: coastal port schematization. . 187
    Figure 132: definition of coastline characteristics. 188
    Figure 133: extended cross-shore profile . 189
    Figure 134: capital dredging costs. . 196 28/05/2010 XIV MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam 28/05/2010 XV MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    TABLE OF TABLES
    Table 1: fetch schematization and wind setup calculation. . 16
    Table 2: wind speed and direction and the corresponding frequencies of occurrence. 23
    Table 3: typhoon induced wind speeds. . 27
    Table 4: wave height and direction and the corresponding occurrence frequencies. . 31
    Table 5: wave period and direction and the corresponding occurrence frequencies. . 32
    Table 6: wave steepness' for the different wave climates. 34
    Table 7: typhoon generated extreme waves. . 35
    Table 8: monsoon generated extreme waves. . 36
    Table 9: wave height and direction and the corresponding frequencies of occurrence. . 41
    Table 10: calculation of typhoon wave periods under extreme conditions. 42
    Table 11: offshore typhoon conditions for wave model. . 43
    Table 12: nearshore typhoon wave conditions for structural design. 44
    Table 13: nearshore typhoon wave conditions for littoral transport calculation. 44
    Table 14: calculation of monsoon wave periods under extreme conditions. 45
    Table 15: offshore monsoon conditions for wave model . 45
    Table 16: nearshore monsoon wave conditions. . 45
    Table 17: current velocity and the occurrence frequency (%) in vertical 2. Source: TEDIPORT. 50
    Table 18: sediment characteristics for MD1 to MD17. 53
    Table 19: total littoral transport per year and per 12 year by CERC formula. 57
    Table 20: total littoral transport per year and per 12 year as calculated by LITPACK 58
    Table 21: input for typhoon induced sediment transport. . 58
    Table 22: input for monsoon induced sediment transport. . 60
    Table 23: determination of coal volume. . 67
    Table 24: occupancy, mean waiting time and mean turnaround time in Phase 1. 70
    Table 25: occupancy, mean waiting time and mean turnaround time in Phase 2. 71
    Table 26: occupancy, mean waiting time and mean turnaround time in Phase 3. 71
    Table 27: required storage areas for clinker storage facility. . 77
    Table 28: required storage areas for coal storage facility. . 77
    Table 29: required number of berths, transport and storage capacities. 78
    Table 30: characteristics of clinker and coal vessels. . 80
    Table 31: calculation results of channel width. 83
    Table 32: calculation results of channel depth . 84
    Table 33: calculation result for inner channel depth. 85
    Table 34: summary of water area dimensions. 87
    Table 35: determination of weight factors . 96
    Table 36: wave diffraction factors for coastal port. . 98
    Table 37: wave diffraction factors for offshore port. . 99
    Table 38: coastline growth in time for coastal port. 101
    Table 39: coastline growth in time for offshore port. 102
    Table 40: MCA result. . 110
    Table 41: calculation of sand spit volume. . 112
    Table 42: required volumes of concrete and natural rock – coastal port. . 117
    Table 43: material availability and costs. . 117
    Table 44: placing and total costs per m3 118
    Table 45: Costs of Xbloc armour units. . 118
    Table 46: Total costs of breakwaters – coastal port. 118
    Table 47: cost estimate coastal port. . 119
    Table 48: total costs of breakwater - offshore port. 124
    Table 49: NPV maintenance dredging operations - coastal port. . 126 28/05/2010 XVI MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    Table 50: NPV maintenance dredging operations - offshore port. 127
    Table 51: Cost-Value Approach. . 128
    Table 52: wind speed and direction with corresponding occurrence frequencies. . 136
    Table 53: wave height and direction and the corresponding frequencies of occurrence. . 137
    Table 54: top 50 typhoons between 1959 – 2009 and corresponding wind speeds 140
    Table 55: top 50 typhoons and corresponding wave heights. . 143
    Table 56: distant r, ratio r/R, ratio Hr/HR, Hs;max and Hs; max_site. . 146
    Table 57: example calculation: characteristics of typhoon Xangsane 147
    Table 58: example calculation: results for typhoon Xangsane . 147
    Table 59: example calculation: actual wave height Hs;site (in m) . 148
    Table 60: top 10 monsoon storms in terms of wave height. . 153
    Table 61: example of a SWAN wavecon file . 160
    Table 62: SWAN input and output for offshore - nearshore wave translation 161
    Table 63: extreme offshore wave condition. . 161
    Table 64: offshore - nearshore wave translation in normal conditions. 163
    Table 65: extreme offshore and nearshore condition. 165
    Table 66: wave height versus period and the corresponding occurrence frequency. . 171
    Table 67: Kr versus wave height and wave period. 171
    Table 68: Ksh versus wave height and wave period. . 171
    Table 69: nb versus wave height and wave direction. . 172
    Table 70: cb versus wave height and wave direction. . 172
    Table 71: wave height and period and the corresponding littoral transport. 172
    Table 72: total littoral transport per year and per 12 year calculated by CERC formula. 173
    Table 73: result of sediment transport for one random event. . 181
    Table 74: total littoral transport per year and per 12 year as calculated by LITPACK 183
    Table 75: berth calculation phase 1. 190
    Table 76: berth calculation phase 2. 191
    Table 77: berth calculation phase 3. 192
    Table 78: breakwater calculation – coastal port. . 194
    Table 79: breakwater calculation – offshore port 195
    Table 80: maintenance dredging costs - coastal port. . 197
    Table 81: maintenance dredging costs - offshore port. . 198 28/05/2010 XVII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    TABLE OF EQUATIONS
    Equation 1:water level rise due to low atmospheric pressure. 14
    Equation 2: calculation of wind shear stress and water level gradient. . 15
    Equation 3: Hs - Tm relationship. . 34
    Equation 4: CERC formula. . 56
    Equation 5: basic sediment transport formula. 57
    Equation 6: formula to calculate v_eff. 82
    Equation 7: formula to calculate channel width. . 83
    Equation 8: formula to calculate channel depth. . 84
    Equation 9: calculation of quay length for one berth. . 86
    Equation 10: calculation of sedimentation volume. 107
    Equation 11: calculation of PV (Present Value). . 126
    Equation 12: Bretschneider equation for maximum wind speed (m/s) in tropical depressions. . 138
    Equation 13: calculation of effective radius. 141
    Equation 14: Young's equation. . 141
    Equation 15: JONSWAP relationship. . 141
    Equation 16: example calculation: effective radius. 147
    Equation 17: example calculation: equivalent fetch. . 147
    Equation 18: example calculation: wave height Hs;max (in m). . 147
    Equation 19: calculation of the probability of exceedance of U10 for the peak-over-threshold approach. 149
    Equation 20: Calculation of U10 from Weibull equation. 150
    Equation 21: requirement for deep water wave conditions. . 166
    Equation 22: basic CERC formula. 168
    Equation 23: explicit CERC formula 168
    Equation 24: calculation L0. . 169
    Equation 25: calculation L. . 169
    Equation 26: calculation k. . 169
    Equation 27: calculation c. . 169
    Equation 28: Snel's Law and calculation of phi_b. . 170
    Equation 29: refraction factor. . 170
    Equation 30: conservation of energy in waves. . 170
    Equation 31: shoaling factor. . 170
    Equation 32: calculation Sx. . 170
    Equation 33: calculation dimensionless bed shear stress. . 174
    Equation 34: vertical turbulent diffusion equation. . 174
    Equation 35: suspended sediment transport. 174
    Equation 36: calculation of fall velocity. 176
    Equation 37: calculation of kinematic viscosity 176
    Equation 38: continuity equation for sediment. 185 28/05/2010 XVIII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam 28/05/2010 1 MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    REPORT
    Analysis of boundary conditions and concept
    design for Port Dong Lam, Thua Thien-Hue
    Province, Vietnam 28/05/2010 2 MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam 28/05/2010 3 MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    1 INTRODUCTION
    1.1 Study Background
    Dong Lam Cement Factory – one of the largest privately owned cement companies in
    Vietnam - is developing a new clinker plant in Thua Thien-Hue Province. As well, three other
    shareholders including a bank and other trading companies are involved.
    Next to the location of the plant there is a limestone quarry which provides the main
    ingredient for production process. The produced clinker will be exported from the province
    and it will require coal for the production. To make this possible a new dedicated seaport is
    required to allow for up to 15,000 dwt clinker vessels and up to 7,000 dwt coal vessels. This
    new seaport terminal is to be constructed several kilometres from the quarry plant on the
    coastal stretch North West of the city Hue (see Figure 1). In the first phase (up to 2015)
    about 2 million ton per year bulk material is expected to be handled at this port. In the
    second phase (2015 and up) this amounts about 4 million ton per year of bulk material.
    After 2035 the production of the plant will be doubled, resulting in a throughput of 8
    million ton per year.
    Port site
    Thua Thien-Hue Province
    Hue
    Figure 1: planned port site in Google Earth image. 28/05/2010 4 MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    The clinker bulk will be transported from the plant to a storage facility by truck over a
    specially-build new road. From there the material is transported to the seaport by means of
    a conveyor belt. The coal is transported the other way around. This is shown in Figure 2.
    From the port, the clinker is exported to a grinding plant in Ho Chi Minh City, where it is
    grinded into cement.
    SEA PORT
    CONVEYOR BELT
    STORAGE
    NEW ROAD
    CLINKER PLANT
    wetland
    lagoon
    Sand barrier
    50 km
    Port site
    Thuan An inlet
    Figure 2: transport system for clinker export and coal import.
    1.1.1 Port location
    The port is to be located on the beginning of a coastal barrier, which is about 30 km away
    from Thuan An inlet of the Tam Giang - Cau Hai lagoon – shown in the upper right corner in
    Figure 2. This lagoon is located in Thua Thien-Hue province which is one of the six provinces
    in the region of the North Central Coast. The province borders the Quang Tri Province to
    the north, the city of Da Nang to the east, the Quang Nam Province to the south, and the
    Xekong Province of Laos to the west.
    1.1.2 Metocean conditions
    In Vietnam, the monsoon system is the governing force of the wind and wave climate.
    Besides, typhoons find their origin in the Western Pacific Ocean and propagate towards the
    Vietnamese coast. The most affected areas by typhoons are the coastal provinces of the
    North and Central regions. This means that wave conditions are strong and that severe 28/05/2010 5 MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
    Port Dong Lam
    wave conditions can be expected. Together with the sandy beaches this can lead to
    significant erosion and accretion, which has to be studied when building port structures.
    1.2 Study Scope
    Paragraph 1 shows that an extensive transport system is required in between the clinker
    and grinding plant to enable the transport of clinker and coal bulk. In this study the focus is
    on the port design, which forms a very important element. The design of the conveyor belt
    and storage facility is not considered in this study. Only the required capacities are
    determined.
    When designing a port four important conditions should be fulfilled:
    ã The port entrance at the seaside should be safe and well accessible
    ã The port basins and quays should provide adequate space for manoeuvring and
    berthing of the ships
    ã At the quay sufficient loading and unloading capacity should be available
    ã The hinterland connections should be efficient and have enough capacity
    In Paragraph 1.1.2 it was stated that knowledge and understanding about the metocean
    and morphological circumstances in the port surroundings is crucial to make a proper port
    design. The study objective can be outlined as follows:
    To give insight in the structure of this study the objective can be separated into five main
    studies:
    1. Data collection
    2. Modeling of offshore wave conditions to nearshore and modeling of littoral
    transport
    3. Determination of required port capacity
    4. Calculation of basic port dimensions
    5. Design of several port layouts and selection of the optimal layout.
    The objective is to design a port with sufficient capacity to handle the predicted cargo flow
    and which offers acceptable conditions for the ships to enter and for the surroundings. This
    means that wave and current disturbance ánd sedimentation of the harbor basin have to be
    limited as well as the morphological impact on the coast. Port Dong Lam
    1.3 Study approach and contents
    1.3.1 Data collection
    Before any design can be initiated, information has to be known on the coastal,
    bathymetric and climate conditions. As well data is required about the water level, wind,
    waves and currents. Moreover, the sediment characteristics and littoral transport have to
    be known and quantified to be able to make a proper port design. As well, the soil
    conditions have to be known for foundation of the structures. These data sources can be
    found in Paragraph 2.1 to 2.13.
    1.3.2 Modelling
    To determine the nearshore wave climate, littoral sediment transport and coastal impact,
    numerical models will be setup using SWAN and MIKE LITPACK. The results from the wave
    modelling study form the input for the morphological model. In both models, normal and
    extreme conditions are considered. The results of the wave and morphological model can
    be found in Paragraph 2.9 and 2.12 respectively. For more details the reader is referred to
    Appendices F and G.
    1.3.3 Transport capacities
    Based on the predicted cargo forecasts the required number of ships per year can be
    determined. From this the number of berths, loading and unloading capacities, conveyor
    belt capacity and the storage areas can be calculated. This is described throughout
    Paragraph 3.1 to 3.3.
    1.3.4 Port dimensions
    By means of design guidelines the principal dimensions of the port can be formulated,
    taking into consideration the environmental boundary conditions. The principal port
    dimensions are understood as the approach channel, mooring basin, turning circle and the
    quay length. These basic dimensions can be found in Paragraph 4.2 to 4.5.

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